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(Entered at the Post Office of New York. N. Y., as Second Class Matter. Copyright, 1S06, by Munn & Co.]
Vol. XCV.-No. 21. .
ESTABLISHED 1845. J
NEW YORK. NOVEMBER 24, 1906.
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The Drilling Platform is Carried on Four Massive Timbers Sixty Feet in Length. The Drill is Inclosed in a Heavy Telescopic Pipe to Protect It from the Rush
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BLASTING OUT A REEF IN NEW YORK HARBOR— [See page 382.]
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THE CONGESTION AT THE PATENT OFFICE.
There is no sign of improvement in the serious con-
gestion that hampers the work of the Patent Office,
which, more than ever before in its history, stands
badly in need of a larger staff, receiving better re-
muneration for its services. Even as far back as the
first of January of the present year, there were, in the
thirty-nine divisions of the Patent Office, 17,353 appli-
cations awaiting action; while at the present writing
there are about 21,000 cases on file which have not yet
been examined. Moreover, the office is falling behind
at the rate of from 250 to 300 cases a week.
As was to be expected, the delay is greater in some
than in other divisions of the Office. In the more
important divisions the delay varies from about five
months, with nearly 500 cases on hand, in steam en-
gineering, to nearly twelve months, with over 1,000
cases on hand, in the division of hydraulic motors,
pumps, and sewerage appliances.
The arguments in favor of the exercise of a more
liberal policy on the part of Congress toward the
Patent Office are so obvious and weighty, and the ap-
propriation that would be necessary to straighten out
this miserable tangle would be so moderate in propor-
tion to the benefit conferred, that the persistent in-
difference of Congress to the needs of this great insti-
tution is beyond all comprehension.
EXTRAORDINARY CONDITIONS IN THE STEEL
Rarely, if ever, in the history of modern industries,
either here or abroad, has there been witnessed such
an extraordinary condition as confronts the steel in-
dustry in the United States. Already the rail mills
are crowded with orders to such an extent that their
total output up to the end of next year will barely
serve to meet the present demand; and the mills
which are devoted to the production of structural steel
are overloaded with work, and must be pushed to the
very utmost to fill orders that are due to be delivered
before the spring of 1907. Even more acute conditions
prevail at the plate mills, the demand for whose out-
put is to be attributed very largely to the growing pop-
ularity of steel cars. These mills have sufficient orders
on the books to keep them going at full pressure,
practically for the whole of next year. There are
many evidences of the prevailing industrial activity;
but none, we think, speaks so eloquently as this. Who
would have predicted, at the time of the formation of
the United States Steel Corporation a few years ago,
that within so short a time not only that great aggre-
gation, but also the independent concerns, would be
taking orders for material which could not possibly be
delivered for twelve months or more from the date of
signing the contracts?
GROWTH OF THE SALTON SEA ARRESTED.
Recent reports from the locality of the Salton Sea
indicate that the flow of the Colorado River from its
natural channel into the Salton sink is at last under
control, the recent rise in the Colorado having failed
to imperil the dam which the Southern Pacific and
government engineers have constructed at the break
in the river's banks. Before its control the river had
risen until it covered an area of several hundred
square miles, and in the bottom of the depression it
had a depth of between seventy and eighty feet. When
the waters first reached the tracks of the Southern
Pacific Railway, the latter were moved back for a
distance which was thought .sufficient to place them
beyond danger from further encroachment. Yet it was
not long before the waters were again lapping at the
ties; and in spite of the fact that the tracks had been
several times driven back by the ever-widening sea,
the railroad, we understand, was contemplating the
expense and trouble of another retreat. Recently the
only indication of the original location of these tracks
was the tops of the telegraph poles, which projected
above the water far from the present shore line. As
it is, the company was obliged to build an entirely
new detour line, forty miles in length, at an elevation
of about seventy feet above the old line, and nearly
forty miles of the old line had to be abandoned. It is
now stated that comparatively little actual damage
was done to the cultivated section of the valley.
GUN TRIALS OF THE "DREADNOUGHT."
So great has been the interest aroused in the
"Dreadnought," that our recent article upon this ship
would be incomplete without some statement of the
manner in which she behaved under the very severe
gun trials to which she was recently subjected. These
trials are of special interest to the naval constructor
and the ordnance expert; for the former has freely
predicted that when the sh'p came to trial, it would
be found that too much had been attempted, and that
the wide arcs of training through which it was claimed
the 12-inch guns could be used, would have to be re-
duced, unless the ship were to be badly wrecked by the
concussion and blast. It was freely asserted that the
designed end-on fire of six 12-inch guns could never be
realized, for the reason that the blast would be certain
to distort the framing of the decks and vertical bulk-
head forming the embrasures through which the guns,
when trained dead ahead, would have to be fired; and
instances were quoted where serious damage of this
character had resulted to ships both of our own and
the British navy. As a matter of fact, the scantling
of the "Dreadnought," in those portions of the deck
and superstructure that would be exposed to the blast,
had been built of heavier section and weights to meet
the resulting stresses; and after the gun trials, care-
ful examination revealed no material injury to the
ship. Eight of the gunswere fired simultaneously on both
sides of the ship, the guns being all laid at the maxi-
mum elevation of a little over 30 degrees." In spite of
the fact that the aggregate energy of the broadside
was 384,000 foot tons, or sufficient to raise the "Dread-
nought" bodily 21 feet into the air, the roll of the
ship under this heavy recoil is said to have been very
slight. The forward pair of guns on the forecastle, and
each pair of guns in the two turrets on the broadside,
were fired simultaneously dead ahead, and each pair of
guns in all the barbettes was fired on various bearings
through its own arc of training; but no structural de-
fect was revealed. Similarly, each of the guns was
fired at various degrees of elevation and depression
with satisfactory results. As the result of the trials, it
was considered by the trial board that the whole of
the ten 12-inch guns for broadside, and the six 12-inch
guns for bow and stern fire, can be used effectively in
THE SIZE OF OCEAN WAVES.
The latest investigation of the question of the size
of ocean waves is that made by the eminent naval
architect, M. Bertin, who agrees with all the qualified
students of this subject in stating that the size of the
largest ocean waves has been greatly overestimated.
According to this authority, of the several methods by
which the length of a wave may be determined, the
most reliable is that of deducing it from the theory
that there is a simple relation between the time of com-
plete oscillation and the length. The longest wave of
which M\ Bertin has knowledge measured 2,590 feet
from crest to crest, and its period was twenty-thre.e
seconds. The long waves, however, are not unusual-
ly high, and in deep water the height of a wave 2,590
feet in length would be not more than one-fiftieth of
its length, or say about 50 feet. Observers, particular-
ly those who were situated on small vessels, claim to
have witnessed waves much higher than this, but their
observations are not of much value, for the reason that
the deck of such a vessel floats parallel to the surface
of the waves instead of parallel with the plane of the
horizon, and the inclination of the deck will thus give
the observers an exaggerated impression of the height
Of an oncoming wave. M. Bertin accepts as reliable,
records taken where this source of error was care-
fully eliminated, which show the highest waves in open
water to have measured 50 feet from trough to crest,
although he is of the opinion that in the southern
seas waves of even greater height than this may occa-
sionally be met. As the waves enter shoal water their
period decreases and they become higher, so that on
striking a shoal, a 40-foot wave will climb to a height
of 50 feet or more. Should it meet an obstacle that
approaches the vertical, it may easily be thrown up to
a height of 100 feet or more; as at the celebrated
Eddystone Light off Plymouth, where solid green
water has at times been known to reach a height of
100 feet. Although the period of the longest waves
may occasionally reach twenty-three seconds, and its
length 2,500 feet, such waves are exceedingly rare, the
common length of a long wave being something over
500 feet and the period ten seconds. The average
November 24, 1906.
period is from six to eight seconds, and the length
from 160 to 320 feet. It is rarely that the height ex-
ceeds 33 feet.
PROGRESS OF THE PENNSYLVANIA EAST RIVER
Interest has been so largely centered upon the con-
struction of the Pennsylvania Railroad tubes beneath
the Hudson River, the completion of which was recent-
ly announced, that the public is in comparative ignor-
ance as to the extensive work which is being done by
the railroad company in tunneling the East River.
Altogether, four separate tubes are being driven, which
are known respectively as tunnels A, B, C, and D. Of
the four, tunnel A, the northernmost,' is the least ad-
vanced. The tube has been driven for only about 150
feet, and the men are now beginning to get out of the
solid rock into the sand and gravel. Tunnel B is the
farthest advanced, the shield having been pushed out
into the river bottom for a distance of over 900 feet
from the shaft, which is located near First Avenue on
Manhattan Island. . Tunnel C is about 600 feet out
from the shaft, and tunnel D a little less than 900
feet. It is gratifying to learn that the company is
using every effort to protect the men from the effects
of working in compressed air, a number of devices
having been adopted for this purpose. The latest of
these is the provision of an independent supply of
compressed air for each lock; an arrangement which
has the advantage that, in case of fire or accident in a
lock nearer to the shore than the one in which the
men are working, they will continue to receive fresh
air independently -of the disabled portion of the tube.
In tunnel B, at a point about 500 feet from the shaft,
a new bulkhead is being built for the installation of an
additional set of locks. When these locks have been
constructed, the air pressure back of them, that is, on
the land side, will be reduced. The advantage of this,
arrangement is that a much smaller chamber will be
maintained under high pressure, and the lowering of
the pressure within the completed portion of the tun-
nel will afford a test of the tightness of the cast-iron
tubes against the surrounding water.
^ < -• 1 ^
SANTOS DUMONT'S LATEST FLIGHT.
A cable dispatch from Paris announces that Santos
Dumont, at 4 o'clock on Monday afternoon, November
12, made a new record with his aeroplane, "14-bis,"
which we illustrated in flight in our last issue. This
time he flew against a slight breeze for a distance of
210 meters (689 feet), or a trifle over one-eighth of a
mile. The machine was in the air for 21 seconds,
which corresponds to a speed of 22.36 miles per hour.
Thus the machine did not show as much speed as in
the previous trials, doubtless because it was flying
against a slight wind. The machine showed good
stability, and apparently had the capability of making
a much longer flight. It also showed that it was cap-
able of being steered with ease. M. Dumont made
a sharp turn to the right, with the intention of describ-
ing a circle, but so great was the crowd of people on
all sides, that, fearing for their safety, he shut off
power and descended. The flight was at length made
after several unsuccessful attempts earlier in the day,
in which the motor failed to operate perfectly. At 2
o'clock there was a strong breeze blowing, and it was
decided not to try to fly against it. By 4 P. M. the
breeze had died out considerably and a number of
attempts were made to fly with the wind. The ma-
chine rose in the air, but only for a distance of .270
feet. The flight occupied 7 1-5 seconds, and 82.6
meters were covered, corresponding to a speed of about
25.66 miles per hour. Finally, a flight against the
wind was attempted, with the result noted. M. Du-
mont expects to make further trials in private, so chat
he will not be hampered by a crowd of spectators.
He hopes in the near future to win the $10,000 prize
for a flight of one kilometer in a circle. In the
flight of the 12th, he won the $300 prize for the first
flight of 100 meters.
While they give Santos Dumont great credit for be-
ing the first publicly to demonstrate the practicability
of the aeroplane flying machine, American experiment-
ers, who have done the most work in this line, do not
believe that the stability (and therefore practicability)
of Santos' machine under all weather conditions is
by any means assured. The fact that, he did not at-
tempt to fly it against a strong wind, when this is just
what is needed to aid in getting such a machine up
in the air, shows, they argue, that he does not have
much fa.ith in its stability. Santos, on the other hand,
is so elated by his success that he prophesies that
aeroplanes for private transportation will soon be in
use in large numbers. He admits that his present
machine (which, he says, has 80 square meters, or 762
square feet, of supporting surface) is somewhat in-
efficient, but he thinks that others will soon be built
intended for higher speed and which, with greater
horse-power and less supporting surface, will be cap-
able of transporting individuals quickly from place lo
place. He says that the only danger to be feared is
breakage of the rudder, and he seems to forget alto-
November 24, 1906.
gether that if the motor stops, the aeroplane will im-
mediately settte down upon terra firma. In his en-
thusiasm the Brazilian aeronaut forgets also that at
least three experimenters in America (Herring in
1898, Whitehead in 1901, and Wright brothers in 1903),
Maxim in England (1896), and Ader in France (1897),
have already flown for short distances with motor-
driven aeroplanes, and yet no really practical machine
of the kind has as yet been produced and demonstrat-
ed. Langley's experiments showed which was the
most efficient shape of plane, and how much a given-
sized plane would lift at different speeds; but with
all this data to build upon, no one has produced an
automatically stable machine, i. e., one with which the
occupant has only to run the engine and to steer.
In view of these facts, we do not look for the sud-
den perfection of the aeroplane flying machine. The
public successful flight of Santos Dumont will increase
the interest in such machines, and stimulate inventors
to further research and experiment in the science of
dynamic flight without buoyant gases.
t in t
WHAT DO THE BIRDS EAT?
BY HELEN LUKENS GAUT.
In order to determine the harmful or beneficial re-
lations of birds to agriculture, horticulture, and all
plant life, a remarkable work is being carried forward
by Prof. F. E. L. Beal, who is in charge of the Divi-
sion of Economic Ornithology of the Biological Sur-
vey, "United States Department of Agriculture at Wash-
ington, D. C. Prof. Beal has alone examined over
thirty thousand bird stomachs, the greatest work of
the kind ever accomplished by a single man, while
his assistants have examined an equal number, making
over sixty thousand in all. A seemingly endless task
it is, investigating with a microscope each minute par-
ticle in each of these thousands of stomachs, yet all
this has been accomplished in a period of seventeen
years. When one considers that to do this intelligent-
ly and successfully requires a thorough knowledge of
the anatomy of bugs and insects, and a familiarity
with characteristics of the seeds of both domestic and
wild plants, the labor assumes formidable proportions
to the uninitiated. To increase their knowledge, work-
ers in this line must spend much time in woods, gar-
dens, and fields, studying hundreds of species of in-
sects, worms, and bugs. The results of these investi-
gations, which are invaluable to science, and of great
practical importance to the American farmer, have led
to a movement that can intelligently favor the increase
of such bird species as are best adapted to preserve
the. proper balance of nature, and reduce the number
of those that prey too greatly on the products of or-
chard and field. Ornithologists from all parts of the
country, and in many instances special field agents
who have been engaged for the purpose, forward great
numbers of bird stomachs to the department, and thus
aid in the practical and scientific research.
It is difficult, almost impossible, to determine what
a bird eats by his actions, as he frequently goes
through all the motions of eating a hearty meal with-
out taking a thing. The "proof of the pudding" is
found in the bird's stomach. If he is loaded with
garden seeds, cultivated fruits, or beneficial insects
(parasites on other insects), he is relegated to the
black list; but if examination reveals a goodly num-
ber of bugs, worms, and insects that are injurious to
plant life, he is hoisted high upon the pedestal of use-
fulness, and woe betide the human who does him
bodily injury, or tries to besmirch his character.
The contents of a bird's stomach consist of a pul-
verized, soggy mass, and it is necessary to separate and
study each minute particle in order to determine to
what species of fruit or insect it. belongs. Caterpillars
are sometimes recognized by their skins, always by
their jaws, and the tiny chitinous plates that surround
the breathing holes. The presence of ants and wasps
is discovered by the hard thorax, spiders by their man-
dibles, and sometimes by their eyes, which sparkle In
the. stomach mass like rubies. Angleworms have hard,
indigestible spicules, which project from their sides.
Beetles have fierce bony jaws, grasshoppers hard man-
dibles and tiny leg-armor plates, and so on through
the entire insect world. The greatest difficulty is ex-
perienced in determining the species of fruit found in
stomachs. Usually it is crushed, and if it contains no
seed, the only method of examination available for
the investigators is to place particles of skin under a
microscope and discover the texture. Grain can be
recognized by the shape of the starch granules when
other methods fail.
"Most astonishing things have been found in the
stomachs of birds, everything but diamonds," says
Prof. Beal. "A bird stomach which had been kept in
alcohol for two years, waiting its turn to be examined,
contained poison oak berries, which are the favorite
food of many birds. The man who examined this
stomach was badly poisoned. Vicious and deadly-poi-
son spiders constitute a favorite bird food. " The mere
touch of a blister beetle would scorch the flesh of a
human, yet in the stomach of one king bird, fourteen
of these fiery creatures were discovered. Caterpillars
with stinging spines, beetles with acrid secretions that
are bitter and burning, bugs with an odor so fierce that
a skunk is fragrant in comparison, and fruit bitter and
rasping as quinine, and thousands of other obnoxious
things, are consumed greedily by the feathered throng."
While sojourning in some localities, certain species
may do inestimable damage to crops, after which they
migrate to other fields, where they charm with their
sweet music, their good nature, and their innocent
and harmless demeanor. For instance, the bobolink
ravages the rice fields of the South, annually destroy-
ing millions of dollars' worth of rice; then, as if re-
morseful, he wings his way to the North, where he is
thoroughly well-behaved, where, with his sweet voice,
immaculate decorum, and his propensity for eating
bugs and other insects injurious to crops, he earns an
enviable reputation. But after the fashion of "Jekyl
and Hyde," his methods change with abruptness, and
he becomes an incarnate fiend when he returns to the
southern rice fields. So great a pest is he to the
planters, that in one season 2,500 pounds of gunpowder
were used on one plantation in an attempt to reduce
After examining hundreds of linnet stomachs, the
investigators have passed the verdict that this bird
is an abominable pest, with but few redeeming quali-
ties. He ignores insects that are injurious to plant
life, and gleans his living by robbing the wealth of
orchard and field. He works with systematic energy,
defoliating trees, eating fruit, and scratching up seed. -
He is a cheery, well-groomed little fellow, but he is
wicked, deserving all the bad names and gunshot be-
stowed upon him. Birds are most seriously harmful
to crops when a single species is super-abundant in a
certain locality, and there is no remedy other than
an unsparing use of powder and shot, else orchards
will be devastated, the labor and hopes of the farmer
be lost, and families left financially destitute.
Crows do immense damage in New England corn
fields, and about the only method of protection is to
tar the corn before it is planted. The efficiency of
this scheme was demonstrated by Prof. Beal, who
planted several acres to corn. Toward the end of the
planting the supply of tar ran out, and he was com-
pelled to finish without it. The areas planted to tarred
corn were ignored by the crows, while the untarred
patch furnished a glorious picnic ground for the
croaking banqueters. Though crows are ravenous
corn eaters, it is stated that this fault is more than
counteracted by their usefulness in destroying harm-
ful insects. In one crow's stomach the investigators
found the mandibles of ninety grasshoppers, showing
that these birds are partial to such food. Robins steal
fruit with a vengeance, and many an eastern farmer
has been near distraction because of the ravages of
these birds. It has been discovered, however, that
they prefer wild fruit, and that whenever it is obtain-
able they scorn fruit that is useful to man. In the
stomachs of three hundred robins were found the
seeds of forty-two species of wild fruits, and only four
or five domestic. Because of this preference, the de-
partment suggests that wild fruits be planted in close
proximity to orchards, so that birds may be attracted
and kept out of mischief. As many of these wild
growths are ornamental, the advantages of having
them about would be doubled.
Woodpeckers are both harmful and useful. The
good they do is in excess of the injury. Flickers
thrive on ants. In a single stomach were found five
thousand of these little pests. The ants best liked
by the flickers are those that befriend plant lice, carry-
ing them from one growth to another, as each becomes
defoliated. The red-bellied woodpecker, common in
the north of Pennsylvania, causes some disturbance
in the orange groves of Florida by pecking holes in
the ripe fruit. The yellow-bellied woodpeckers, indi-
genous to the northern part of the United States and
the Alleghany Mountains, have an exasperating trick
of girdling trees, and pecking holes in the trunks in
order to obtain a sap that exudes from the bruises.
They also eat tnsects that become imprisoned in the
On expanding leaves and flower buds plant lice ac-
cumulate, and most of the warblers perform a work
of benevolence for the farmer by going over orchards
systematically, and gleaning the offensive and de-
structive insects. They are indefatigable insect ex-
terminators, and are of great value to the world of
agriculture. Meadow larks and cuckoos are helpful,
and have no black marks against their names in the
ornithological records. The worst insect enemies of
the fruit grower are caterpillars, cankerworms, fall
webworms, tussock moths, and codling moths. All
these creatures the cuckoos dispose of with gusto and
dispatch. Few other birds will eat the hairy cater-
pillars, because the stiff hairs pierce the inner lining
of most bird stomachs, and produce discomfort. But
the cuckoo experiences no bad result, though some-
times his stomach is completely furred with these
hairs. As the food rotates in the stomach, these hairs
are brushed round and round like the silk nap of a
silk hat In the stomach of one cuckoo the r&-
mains of two hundred and fifty tent caterpillars were
found. Bushtits and other small birds are found
invaluable for ridding orchards of scales and minute
insects that destroy the value of crops. The micro-
scopic eyes of these birds detect the tiniest insect eggs
and every species of life, and they perform tasks in
insect extermination that would be impossible £or
man. It is said they can be attracted to orchards by
hanging meat on trees.
Hawks and owls are useful to orchardists, for they
prey on gophers, ground squirrels, field mice, rabbits,
and many other rodents that do great mischief in
girdling trees and stealing seeds. True, these birds
sometimes feed on small birds and poultry, but their
chief food consists of harmful rodents. This was
proved by examining two' hundred and seventy stom-
achs. Out of the seventy-three species of these birds
to be found in the United States, only six were found
to be really harmful. Some States have offered boun-
ties on hawks and owls, while rabbits are allowed to
go their mischievous way unmolested. Rabbits are
found to be of more harm to farmers than they are
of value as food. Owls and hawks are helpful, and it
has been suggested that the bounty be placed on the
head of the erring rabbit, and removed from those of
the enterprising birds.
Free ammonia in water always indicates organic
matter in the process of decomposition. In polluted
surface waters it is rarely high, being removed almost
as fast as formed by vegetable and animal organisms
in the water, and an amount of nitrogen as free am-
monia above 0.05 milligramme per liter is unusual,
and if it does occur the water cannot be considered as
an unpolluted water unless that fact is clearly estab-
lished by other data.
According to the recent experiments which have
been made by Prof. Niccolo Vaccaro, connected with
the physical department of the University of Genoa,
relating to the spectrum of nitrogen in a magnetic
field, he finds that when applying the field so that the
lines of force run transversely through the tube con-
taining the rarefied nitrogen, in which the electrodes
for the discharge are placed at each end of the tube,
the phenomena vary to a considerable degree accord-
ing to the pressure in the tube, the latter being con-
nected to an air-pump. The present researches, which
were made with considerable detail, show in general
that when using pressures which are relatively high,
the spectrum in the tube of rarefied gas increases both
in luminous effect and in the number of lines under
the influence of the magnetic field. But for very low
pressures the effect is seen to be clearly inverted, and
the magnetic field has a weakening effect. He finds
that there is a critical point at which no effect is
observed from the field, and this is at a pressure of
0.02 inch of mercury in the tube. At this point the
magnetic field has no appreciable influence upon the
spectrum of the rarefied gas.
A French chemist, h. Ouvrard, has formed a series
of new compounds, the boro-stannates of the alka-
line earths. He has also succeeded in reproducing the
mineral nordenskioldine by artificial means. Re-
searches upon the metallic borates led him to form the
boro-stannates by different methods, and among these
is the boro-stannate of calcium, which is identical with
the above-mentioned mineral. First, he tried by fu-
sion, in chloride of calcium, of a mixture of boric acid
or borate of lime and broxide of tin. Here the reac-
tion is not decisive, and no doubt there results a
chloro-borate. A better method is to mix in a platinum
trough, the precipitated borate of lime, corresponding
nearly to CaO, 2B,,0„ with a small quantity of broxide
of tin coming from the calcination of meta-stannic
acid. The trough is placed in a porcelain tube and
brought to a white heat, while passing a slow current
of hydrochloric acid vapor. After three-quarters of an
hour he finds a melted opaque mass, covered with
hexagonal scales, some of which are also deposited
upon the trough. These scales, when isolated, are
found to be the boro-stannate of calcium B^O;,, SnO.,
CaO. This body is colorless and transparent, and not
easily melted. It scarcely dissolves in hydrochloric
acid, even when concentrated. The crystalline scales
are fragile, with a glassy lustre, and resemble the
natural mineral. Some of the largest ones are 0.05
inch wide and 0.0004 thick. This compound is identi-
cal with the mineral nordenskioldine, which was de-
scribed by Briigger in 1887. By an analogous process,
he was able to form the corresponding compounds of
strontium and barium. These, however, are more dif-
ficult to produce. Using as above a current of gaseous
hydrochloric acid at a red heat he obtains some scales
of boro-stannates mixed with numerous crystals of
casserite. By reacting upon stannic chloride the re-
sults are generally better, and he was able to form the
new compounds of barium and strontium in a nearly
pure state. These are crystalline bodies having about
the same appearance as the calcium compound.
November 24, 1906.
COOKING WITHOUT FIRE.
BY GEORGE J. JONES.
The flreless cookstove is not exactly a new thing,
for its economies and conveniences have been known
to the people of an out-of-the-way portion of the Ger-
man empire. Only a year or two ago some ladies of
that country had their attention attracted to the tire-
less cookstove, and they became so interested in it that
an organization was effected for the purpose of making
the women of the country generally familiar
with it. In this manner one of the United
States representatives in Germany heard of
the scheme, and reported on it. This at-
tracted general attention in this country,
and the supply of government pamphlets
was soon exhausted.
The system is based on the fact that a
perfectly insulated vessel containing meat
or vegetables and a proper supply of water
will continue to cook for a long while after
Once having been brought to the boiling
point. The operation of cooking proceeds
just the same as if it were directly over the
fire, except that it is much slower.
This apparatus was known as the hay box
In Germany, and consisted of a crudely con-
structed box, which was insulated in that it
was lined with some cloth or other material
which happened to be convenient and then
filled with hay. The article to be cooked
was placed over a fire for a short time, a
minute or two, and then quickly transferred
to the hay box, where it was placed in a
sort of a pocket made in the hay. Here the
cooking continued slowly without any fur-
ther application of heat or any attention.
The subject was called to the attention of
the President, and he directed that the^ hay
box be experimented with by the Commissary
Department. This was done at Port Riley,
Kansas, under the direction of Oapt. M. S. Murray with
the assistance of Latrobe Bromwell, instructor of the
school of army cooks at that place. These experiments
were very successful, and the scheme was heartily in-
dorsed. A box suitable for army use has been de-
signed, and it is likely some great changes in the con-
duct of the company kitchen are about to be made.
This method of food preparation has been recently
made available for domestic use by the introduction of
the cooking cabinet. In the main this is nothing more
or less than a well-constructed box of oak, thoroughly
insulated to keep in the heat. It is thirty-six inches
long, fifteen wide, and seventeen deep. It is equipped
with three enamel vessels of a construction especially
designed for this character of work, having covers
which are clamped on to further facilitate the reten-
tion of the heat. The lids of these vessels are held
on by a revolving bar-lock device, which not only
makes a hermetically tight joint, but also acts as a
handle. One of these three vessels is of eight quarts
capacity, and the other two four quarts each. After
the viands in the kettle have been
exposed to the heat of the stove
until boiling has taken place for
a minute or so, the lid is clamped
into place, and the whole pot
transferred to one of the pockets
of the cooker.
The actual time consumed in
the preparation of food by this
process is about double that or-
dinarily required, but the food
may be left in very long and will
not be overdone. The saving of
fuel resulting from the use of the
cooker is considerable, and the
burdens of the housewife are
maximum distance between the first step and the car
platform be 15 inches, with a minimum distance of
12; and that the maximum distance between the car
platform and the top of the floor of the car be 10
inches, with a minimum distance of 8. "It is the
opinion of the committee that an ideal condition would
call for a height of 17 inches from top of rail to the
first step, and from the first step to the platform, 14
inches, and from the platform to the floor of car, 10
of the jar, pour an equal amount of hydrochloric acid,
under the water, as shown in Fig. 1, until the water
rises to the top of the jar. If no effort be made to
mix the two liquids they will remain neatly separated
for days, the density of commercial hydrochloric acid
being greater than that of water. Let an egg sink
gently into the water. It will pass through it, reach
the hydrochloric acid zone, and there almost instan-
taneously become covered with a thick layer of bub-
bles. These decrease its density and pre-
vent its farther downward progress. The
egg does not come up to the top, however,
but settles on the dividing line between the
two liquids. There it begins to revolve
slowly around its greater axis, and will keep
up that queer motion for more than an hour.
The bubbles on the top of the egg gradually
dissolve in the water, while they increase at
the bottom, which is nearer the acid. The
double process continually raises the center
of gravity of the egg, and its rotation is due
to this continued alteration.
Latest Form of the Fireless Cooker.
inches,, making a total distance from top of rail to
floor of car, 41 inches. It is also recommended that
the tread of all steps be not less than 10 inches."
A CURIOUS CHEMICAL EXPERIMENT.
BY GUSTAV MICHAUD, D.8C.
To keep an egg continually rotating in the midst
of a liquid mass, without ever allowing it to come up
to the surface or to fall down to the bottom, is a
feat which does not seem easy to perform. Owing to
a peculiarity of the composition of the shell the ex-
periment is easily made, "and will afford entertain-
ment as well as impart some knowledge.
The eggshell contains a considerable amount of
calcium carbonate, and will evolve carbon dioxide gas
when submerged in a solution of hydrochloric acid.
The reaction differs, however, from that which takes
place under similar circumstances with ordinary lime-
stone; the organic matter which enters in the com-
position of the shell causes most of the gaseous bub-
bles to remain attached to the egg. They increase its
Steps of Trolley Cars.
A recent number of the Elec-
trical World says that the New
York State Board of Railroad
Commissioners has received many
complaints from women in ref-
erence to the excessive height of
the car steps on the street sur-
face roads in that State. It was
decided by the Commission that
a remedy could be more quickly
obtained by a conference with the
managers of the different roads
than by recommendations to indi-
vidual companies against whom the complaints have
been received. For this reason the matter was brought
to the attention of the New York State Street Railway
Association, which at its last convention appointed a
committee to consider the subject. This committee has
reported . to the Association that the preferable maxi-
mum height between the top of the rail and the first
step of all cars of the box type with 33-inch wheel is
18 inches, with a minimum height of 14; that the
Chinese Wood Oil.
Investigations by W. B. Hemsley at the
Kew Herbarium (Bull. Kew Gardens) have
led him to the conclusion that the wood oil,
or "tung oil" of China, which it has hereto-
fore been supposed was obtained from the
seed of Aleurites cordata. is not derived
from that species, but from another, to
which he has given the name of Aleurites
fordii, Hemsl., and has figured in Hooker 1
Icones Plantarum, t.t. 2,801 and 2,802. In
this species the flowers are developed be-
fore the entire leaves, the styles are shortly
bifid, and the apiculate capsule is not wrin-
kled. It is found in the Chinese provinces
of Chekiang, Kiangsi, Fokien, Hupeh, and
Yunnan. Aleurites cordata, R.Br., is, how-
ever, found in Japan, Formosa, Hainan, and Tonking,
but apparently does not occur on the mainland of
China. It has narrower petals, deeply divided styles
and a wrinkled fruit. Shirasawa, Iconographie des
Essences Forestieres, vol. I., p. 93, treats this as a
cultivated tree of Japan. Aleurites triloba, Forst.,
occurs in Malaya and Polynesia, and is naturalized in
many other tropical countries. The seeds of a fourth
species, A. trisperma, Blanco, were imported into
Liverpool in 1891 and 1897 under the name of "Balu-
cang," and are so much like those of A. cordata that
they have been mistaken for them. There is no doubt
that A. cordata yields a similar oil (probably in
Japan and Cochin China). According to Dr. A. Henry,
Aleurites fordii succeeds best in barren, rocky places
where farming cannot be carried on, the soil being
very thin. It grows where the temperature rises to
100 deg. F. in July, and where the snow lies on the
ground for days in winter, but where severe frosts
are unknown. It succeeds also in tropical regions.
The oil is made in two qualities; the kind usually ex-
ported is cold-drawn. It is used
in central China for varnishing,
and for lighting purposes. The
inferior quality, which does not
appear to be exported, is extracted
by heat and pressure, and is
thick, blackish, and opaque. It is
used for making putty for calk-
ing boats, etc. The wood oil is
said to be sometimes adulterated
with oil expressed from the seeds
of a kind of soy bean, Glycino his-
jida, Max., which seriously af-
fects its drying properties.
HOW TO KEEP AN EGG CONTINUALLY IN ROTATION IN A LIQUID WITHOUT ALLOWING
IT TO RISE TO THE SURFACE.
bulk, and hinder the contact of the acid with the shell
to such an extent that a solution which would in a
few minutes consume a piece of marble the size of a
nut, takes several hours to dissolve the thin shell of
an egg. The phenomenon is most interesting to ob-
serve when produced by means of the following ap-
Take a glass jar and half fill it with water. Then,
by means of a glass tube which reaches to the bottom
Timber Testing at Purdue.
A long series of experiments has
been completed at Purdue Uni-
versity affecting certain processes
to increase the life, strength, and
physical qualities of timber.
These processes are regarded
necessary because of the steady
diminution of the timber supply.
The feeling is prevalent that
everything possible should be
done to increase the durability of
the timber that is now being used
for various purposes. The ex-
periments at Purdue have been
made chiefly in the interests of
railroads by making mechanical
tests of the ties treated by different processes. Over
400 ties were used, and upward of 600 tests were made.
The timber-testing laboratory at Purdue is the one
used by the government at the St. Louis Exposition.
There are now over 700 motor omnibuses owned by
London companies. According to the Commercial
Motor, 469 of these were in service on October 4th,
over 200 being in the repairers' hands.
November 24, 1906.
A NSW APPARATUS FOB THE COALING OF
BT OUR BERLIN CORRESPONDENT.
An apparatus for the coaling of warships on the
high sea, based on the principle of the Miller appa-
ratus used in the American navy, has been recently
invented by Georg Leue, a Charlottenburg engineer,
and has just been submitted to severe tests in the
German navy. The apparatus comprises: 1, an end-
less rope for transferring coal bags from
one ship to another; 2, a "compensator"
station; 3, a reversing station; 4, a "com-
pensator" to account for the variable
position of the endless' rope; 5, a driving
mechanism connected with the compen-
sator, to move the end of the rope; 6,
the "elevator" installed on the coal ship,
which lifts the sacks up to the ropeway;
7, a slipping device for throwing off the
end of the rope in case the towing rope
should break, or when the coaling is fin-
ished; 8, the sack hooks with the sacks;
9, the chutes on which the sacks slide
down upon the deck.
In starting the apparatus, the towing
rope is first brought out, after which the
endless rope is reeved. The slip rope is
passed over to the other ship and fast-
ened there to a block. The proper sag
of the endless rope is next fixed by eas-
ing off the towing rope, and the motive
agent (compressed air, steam, or water)
admitted to the compensator, thus stiff-
ening the endless rope. The driving
motor is next started, when the rope,
and with it the elevator, begins to run,
and the whole outfit will be ready for
The sacks, provided with hooks, are
hung on the elevator installed on board
the collier, and after having been raised,
remain firmly attached to the rope.
During the rotation of the endless
rope they arrive at the mast of the
other ship, and there are automatically
detached from the rope, falling into the
chute and sliding down upon the deck,
where they ase emptied. Several empty
sacks having been put into another emp-
ty sack, are conveyed back to the coal-
ship on the endless rope.
Owing to the motion of the ships and
of the sea, the tension of the towing rope
is submitted to great variations. The
conveying j-ope connecting the two ships
would share this movement even in an
increased measure, so as to render any hauling im-
possible. To obviate this drawback and to maintain
the proper tautness of the conveying rope, there has
been provided the apparatus called the "compensator."
This is of a similar construction to a tackle, and re-
leases the rope by a multiple of the distance to which
the pulleys approach each other, drawing it in in a
similar manner by a multiple of the distance to which
the pulleys are drawn away from each other. The
pulley systems are united by cylinders sliding inside
one another and in
the interior of
which a certain
pressure is main-
ing the tension in
the rope. If this
air escapes through
a maximum valve,
and the systems of
one another until
the pressure and
other, while just
the opposite pro-
cess takes place
when the ten-
sion in the rope is
lessened. The appa-
ratus thus tightens
or relaxes the rope
to the extent of 200
feet and more. If
the towing rope
should break, the endless rope is thrown off automat-
ically, as the slip rope being tightened actuates the
releasing mechanism of the reversing pulley, tilting
this over, so that the rope springs out of it and is also
thrown out at the reversing station. The rope itself
falls into the water, whence it is withdrawn. The
ships then are quite separated.
After the coaling is finished, the endless rope can
also be thrown off by hand, by pulling at the slip
rope. As the stations on the mast adjust themselves
automatically to the relative position of the ship,
shee rings up to 45 deg. in either direction are of no
influence whatsoever on the working of the apparatus.
An interesting series of trials was carried out in
February last in the German navy between the ar-
mored cruiser "Prinz Heinrich" and the collier
"Hermann Sauber," chartered by Mr. Leue. On Feb-
ruary 17, while there was little wind and a smooth
Placing 1 the Bags on the Conveyor.
sea, as much as 56 tons of coal per hour were trans-
ferred to the "Prinz Heinrich," which towed the
collier at a speed of 11 knots per hour. The weight
of each coal sack was 250 pounds. On the 22d of
February these experiments were continued in very
bad weather with a strong gale and very rough sea,
during rain arid snow storms, while the ships were
sailing at the same rate of 11 knots per hour. During
the first two hours 105 tons of coal were transferred
to the "Prinz Heinrich," which figure, according to
Who Owns the Prescription ?
In certain States where prohibition laws are in
force the pharmacist is compelled under penalty to
retain prescriptions for spirituous liquors and to re-
frain from refilling them; and in one or more other
States this restriction is applied also to morphine and
Now, the pharmacy law of Rhode Island (unless it
has been recently amended in this particular) re-
quires the retention of the prescription by
the dispenser, but it also provides that a
copy of it must be furnished free of ex-
pense to either the writer, or the "pur-
chaser" of it, whenever demanded. With
these exceptions there are no statutes
which bear on the subject.
The Rhode Island law, it will be noted,
while it makes the dispenser the cus-
todian of the prescription, does not pre-
vent the patient from still making use
of it — the copy is, of course, practically
the same thing as the original.
Magistrates have decided the question
of ownership both ways; and there have
been rumors from time to time of deci-
sions by the higher courts settling the
matter, but there is no such decision on
record; and although the subject has
been discussed with considerable fre-
quency, no one has yet given us a refer-
ence to one.
Usage favors the pharmacist in this
country as being the proper custodian of
the prescription, but abroad this is quite
the reverse. If a customer demanded
from a pharmacist the return of a pre-
scription which had been retained by
him, a successful legal resistance of this
demand might turn somewhat on the
motive of the refusal. If it were shown
that the pharmacist was in the habit, as
is usually the case, of refilling prescrip-
tions at the request of the patient, and
that consequently his refusal was not a
matter of public policy — an effort to pro-
tect the ignorant from the dangers of
self-prescribing' — but merely intended to
compel future custom, a court and jury
would not be likely to sustain his re-
In view of the many evils resulting
from the application of medical advice
intended for one condition to another
perhaps totally different — even extending
to the "lending" of prescriptions to sick
friends — it would be to the advantage of
the community if the refilling of prescriptions without
the authority of the physician could be prevented.
Perhaps this could be constitutionally done by law on
the ground stated, but until it is, the patient will have
rather the stronger side when there is a dispute about
ownership. — The Druggists Circular and Chemical Ga-
The German Armored Cruiser " Prinz Heinrich " Coaling at
A NEW APPARATUS FOR THE COALING OF WARSHIPS.
the opinion of experts, might however have been eas-
ily increased up to 60 tons and more per hour, had
there been a greater number of sacks and more men
available on board the warship, so as to allow the ar-
riving sacks to be more rapidly emptied.
The apparatus, from the time the rope was shot off
until the first full sack of coal was transported, was
got into working order within 24 minutes. This has
not been approached by previous inventors.
A motor-driven rail mill is in operation at the
Edgar Thomson plant of the Carnegie Steel Company
at Bessemer, Pa.
It is equipped with
two 1,500 - horse-
power, 30-pole, 220-
pounded 15 per
cent, which oper-
ate at from 100 to
125 revolutions per
minute. Each mo-
tor carries a 125,-
steel segmental fly-
wheel which re-
lieves it from the
extreme shocks of
rolling. The power
delivered by each
motor ranges from
950 to 1,450 horse-
power in rolling
rails, with occasi-
onal jumps to
the friction load
on the mill run-
ning light is estimated at about 500 horse-power.
* 1 « ■ * ■
A wind pressure of 30 pounds per square foot is
specified in the New York building laws for buildings
more than 100 feet high, with an allowable unit stress
of 50 per cent more than for dead or live loads. Fow-
ler gives 20 pounds for buildings less than 20 feet
high and 30 pounds for buildings 60 feet high; with
no extra allowable unit stress.
November 24, 1906.
BLASTING OUT A REEF IN NEW YORK HARBOR.
Some few years ago, when the cruiser "Brooklyn"
was passing through the fairway to the southwest of
the Battery, the ship being fully equipped with stores,
etc., and therefore at her maximum draft, she grounded
quite hepvily upon some obstruction, and received in-
juries which necessitated her docking at the Brooklyn
navy yard, where extensive repairs had to be made
on her damaged bottom.
As there was supposed to be an ample depth of
water at this point, it was presumed that the ship had
struck some sunken barge or vessel, of which no rec-
ord had been kept. Subsequent examination of the
locality, however, developed the surprising fact that
at this point there was a reef of rocks where the
channel shoaled from its normal depth of 40 to 45
feet to a least observed depth of 28.6 feet at mean
low water. . Complete soundings were made of the
reef, and its contours established. The projecting
mass of rock, which is of the same gneiss which under-
lies New York city, was found to vary from 32 feet
in length by 25 feet in width at the 30-foot depth, to
200 feet in length by 77 f«et in width at the depth of
40 feet, where the total area was found to be about
10,160 square feet and the total amount of rock to be
removed was estimated at 1,450 cubic yards. Tenders
for the removal of the rock were invited, and the
contract was let to J. B. Miller, of this city, to whom
we. are indebted for assistance in the preparation of
the present article.
The task of removing the rock is rendered un-
usually difficult by the depth of the water and the
velocity of the currents, which vary from 5 to 6
miles per hour. Furthermore, the blasting and dredg-
ing operations have to be carried on at one of the
busiest points in New York harbor. The reef is about
1,000 feet south by west from Pier A at the entrance
of the North River, where it lies in the track of both
the incoming and outgoing traffic from the North
River docks and also directly in the way of the even
heavier traffic which passes around the Battery be-
tween the North and East rivers. The most difficult
task was that of drilling, and to expedite this work
the contractor devised the movable platform which
forms the subject of our front-page illustration. It
consists of four massive spuds, each measuring 16 x 16
inches on the side, and 60 feet in length. These
are pointed at the bottom, and weighted with iron in
order to overcome the buoyancy of the timber at the
greater depths. The working platform is carried upon
four movable spud boxes, which are built of 4-inch
yellow pine, strongly bolted together and adapted to
slide vertically upon the spuds. A heavy framing of
4x6 waling pieces connects the spud boxes at their
upper and lower edges, and upon the lower framing is
laid the working platform from which the drills are
operated. The platform is supported upon the spuds
by means of 1%-inch steel pins, which are placed in
holes bored through the spuds. Prom this description
it will be seen that the contractor had at his disposal
a platform whose legs could be readily adjusted to the
uneven surface of the reef.
The drilling was done by a 5%i-inch Ingersoll special
submarine drill, steam being supplied from a scow
moored alongside the working platform. When opera-
tions first started, it was found that the rush of the
tides was so swift that the steel drill was bent as
much as 7 inches out of line by the pressure. This
condition was met by providing a heavy telescopic
cast-iron pipe, which varied from a diameter of 4
inches at the bottom to 12 inches at the platform.
The pipe was lowered down to the rock, and provided
a shield within which the drill -was operated without
any further trouble from deflection.
The current was found to be strongest on the last
of the ebb tide after heavy storms of rain, when spe-
cial precautions had to be taken to keep the platform
in its proper working position. Because of the heavy
current, the diver was able to go down only at slack
tide, which he did for the purpose of locating and
charging the holes. When it became necessary to
shift the platform, a scow was first floated between
the spuds to receive the weight of the platform. The
derrick then took hold of the four corners of the
frame and lifted the weight off the pins, which were
removed and the platform was lowered down on the
The pins were then placed in the holes above the
frame, and as the scow rose with the tide, it lifted
the platform and spuds, and was moved with its load
to the new position. Here the platform was lowered,
and the spuds allowed to settle to their bearings, after
which the pins were inserted, the scow floated out,
and the platform was left in position for further drill-
The work, which was started in the summer of
1905, has been delayed by various collisions which
have wrecked the platform and necessitated repairs;
but it is expected that the whole of the reef will have
been blasted out and dredged away by the spring of
next year, leaving everywhere a uniform depth of 40
feet at mean low water.
The Aeronautical Congress of 1906.
BY OUR BERLIN CORRESPONDENT.
An International Aeronautical Congress is being
held at Berlin in connection with the twenty-fifth an-
niversary of the Berlin Aeronautical Association.
While the first day of the congress was given up to
the novel military sport of balloon hunting by means
of automobiles, the second day was devoted to lectures.
Prof. Hergesell, of Strasburg, lectured on Studying
the Atmosphere Above the Sea by means of bal-
loons and kites. That old children's toy, the kite, has
been developed into a most valuable instrument for
scientific research. The • first attempts made in this
connection above land were extended to successful
investigations of the atmosphere above the sea, by
starting a captive kite from a vessel. The first more
extensive trials were carried out from the imperial
dispatch boat "Sleipner" and from the yacht of the
Prince of Monaco. Great difficulties, however, were
encountered in investigating the trade winds by means
of kites, the raising of the latter up to a height of
13,120 feet requiring many hours. Another drawback
in investigating the direction and speed of the winds
in any region was found in the fact that the proper
velocity of the wind at great heights is apt to be con-
cealed by the winds set up by the motion of the vessel.
These difficulties were done away with by using re-
cording or sounding balloons, the ascension of which
was found to be most rapid, and which readily reached
heights of 5,248 and even 5,904 feet, while indicating
the direction and speed of winds as faithfully as the
moisture of the atmosphere. Special difficulties were,
however, met with in the polar regions in which re-
cording balloons have been sent up as far north as 81
deg. northern latitude.
Two recording balloons are generally connected to-
gether by a cable about 164 feet in length, from the
center of which another cable branches about 80 feet,
carrying the apparatus, to which another 160 feet
of cable and finally a float are fitted. The whole sys-
tem will rise until one of the balloons explodes, where-
upon the other, unable to support the whole system,
will drop until the float has reached the sea. The
system being again in equilibrium, the balloon will
then float at 3,280 feet above the sea, carrying the ap-
paratus at a height of 80 feet.
Prof. Miethe next delivered a lecture on color pho-
tography from balloons and photography in the ser-
vice of meteorology, and exhibited some beautiful
specimens of colored cloud photographs. Aeronautics
and meteorology are intimately allied, in so far as
the former is a most efficient aid to the latter. The
problem of taking photographs from a balloon may be
said to be almost identical with that other problem
of photographing clouds, in so far as the absence of
any foreground in the picture in both cases requires
the use of practically identical apparatus, rendering
it possible to take the three views necessary for a
color photograph. Colored views can be taken in a
very small fraction of a second with the improved
methods designed by Prof. Miethe. The views of Ber-
lin taken from heights of 2,500 feet to 3,000 feet show
the interest inherent even from a technical or military
point of view to such colored balloon photographs. It
may be said that color photography will possibly avail
itself also of the rocket cameras which have been con-
structed quite recently.
Major Gross lectured on the development of motor-
propelled airships in the twentieth century. The prob-
lem of the dirigible airship may be said now to have
been solved, the main drawback formerly encountered
being the disproportionate ratio between the capacity
of the balloon and the weight of the motor. The ex-
periments made by Santos Dumont, who traveled
round the Eiffel Tower, have been continued by the
Lebaudy brothers. The mammoth airship of Count
Zeppelin and the Parseval airship had not so far met
with the same success as those of the French aeronauts.
According to the lecturer, any airship should be pro-
vided with a keel, to protect it against any rolling
motion. Steam engines and electro-motors are unsuit-
able for the purpose, their output being insufficient as
compared with their weight. Explosion motors, as
used exclusively for the purpose, are still, it is true,
far from being perfect. Zeppelin's airship recently
made an entirely successful ascent.
♦ < ■ > >
It is reported from Paris that Prof. Behring has
discovered a new method of sterilizing milk, without
boiling it or destroying any of its essential principles.
The method is based on the powerful qualities of Ger-
man perphydrol, simply oxygenated. One gramme per
liter of this substance is sufficient to destroy all nox-
ious germs. Milk thus sterilized can be kept a long
time, and is not injured by transportation, but cannot be
drunk until it has been gently warmed and a drop of a
catalytic substance added. Dr. Behring has proved "vat
light has a very harmful effect on milk, whether
sterilized hot or cold, and he recommends that it
should be kept in a dark place or in red or green
A "Rain Circle" at Niagara.
To the Editor of the Scientific American:
While at Niagara Falls the past summer, I witnessed
arr unusual phenomenon. I was standing on the wall
at the brink of the Canadian falls in the thick of a
drenching mist from the tumbling waters. It was a
spotlessly clear day, and the point where I stood was
on a line with the sun and the center of the cloud of
mist. Here the gorgeous rainbow that spanned the
falls from other points of view resolved itself into a
circle, a tangent of which passed along the wall on
which I was standing. The iridescent circumference
extended to the upper rim of the cloud, having an ap-
parent diameter of fifty yards or thereabout. Here
was a digression from the traditional rainbow, and a
"rain circle" lit up the fog-sea with a halo of the
most vivid and strikingly beautiful colors. Some of
the readers of your valuable publication must have
been witnesses to the same phenomenon. Reader.
Montreal, November 11, 1906.
Night Work on Panama Canal.
To the Editor of the Scientific American:
The chief difficulty with the Panama canal problem
is the labor problem. Suggestions are sometimes
harmless and sometimes helpful, and I therefore send
forth this one: That the canal be built by night rather
than by day, so as to escape the midday sun, and if
the night air is not too miasmatic the plan would al-
low workers to be employed that could not stand the
tropical sun at midday. Work two relays, commenc-
ing at 4 P. M. and working until 12 midnight, then
the other relay, commencing at 12 midnight and work-
ing until 8 A. M., and all resting during the heat of
day until 4 P. M. This plan would enable the negro
as well as hardy laborers from our cities to stand the
climate and save to ourselves the millions that our
government will pay out. Let the plan be tried.
Chicago, 111., October 30, 1906. Charles Rogers.
United States Army Erosion Experiment In 1864.
To the Editor of the Scientific American:
In your editorial of September 15, in the article on
erosion as a detrimental factor in the rifled gun prob-
lem, I wish to state that the proposition of Maxim,
Vickers & Co. is untenable in practice. I will state
that in 1864 there was issued to the infantry a lot of
ammunition in which every tenth round consisted of
a ball having at its base a saucer-shaped zinc plate,
which by the impact of the charge was flattened and
thereby wholly filled the bore of the gun. It pre-
sumed to act as a cleaner, and it surely fulfilled its
office, as after about ten to fifteen shots of this kind
the best Enfield rifle was no better than an old smooth-
bore musket, having so stripped the rifling that it was
In other words, the gun was draw-bored until it was
a smoothbore. J. R. Wilkinson, 3d U. S. A.
Ex Reg. Artillerist, Army of the Cumberland.
Sanger, Cal., November 17, 1906.
The Current Supplement.
It is generally supposed that it is necessary to go to
the Rhine, to England, or to Italy to see the stepping
stones which connect the past with the present; yet in
various parts of this country we have ruins of antiqui-
ties that reach far back, and with which romance and
history are intimately associated. The California mis-
sions are striking examples. Mr. Charles F. Holder
has taken the California missions for the subject of a
vivid illustrated article, which opens the current
Supplement, No. 1612. Interesting from a medical
point of view is an article on predigested and malted
breakfast foods. Dr. J. D. Pennock gives some data
on Mond producer-gas engines. For the purpose of
contributing to the knowledge of an imperfectly in-
vestigated subject, Mr. J. Alex. Smith writes on air in
relation to the surface condensation of low-pressure
steam. Mr. A. J. Jarman gives some valuable hints on
gelatino-chloride emulsions for gaslight developing
paper. It is difficult to find a square yard of soil in
which, under proper conditions of heat and moisture,
seeds of some kind will not grow. This curious tena-
city of life is well discussed by Mr. Craig S. Thorns in
four papers bearing the general title "How Seeds are
Carried." The first of these, published in the current
Supplement, deals with seeds that fly. Mr, C. F. Jen-
kins's paper on single-phase electric traction is con-
cluded. Sir William H. Preece presents a very good
discussion- of incandescent lamps and the grading of
voltages. The scientific investigation of automobile
pneumatic tires is taken as a subject by the English
correspondent of the Scientific American. Our Paris
correspondent writes on light-weight gasoline motors
for aeronautical work, a subject which is becoming of
considerable importance in view of the recent develop-
ments in aeroplane flight. Dr. H. W. Wiley's paper on
the source of industrial alcohol is concluded.
November 24, 1906.
THE OPPOSITION OF MARS IN 1907.
BY FREDERIC R. HONEY, TRINITY COLLEGE.
A favorable opposition of Mars is an event which
occurs at such rare intervals as to make it one of un-
usual value to the astronomer. This is especially the
case at the present time, when speculations are rife
respecting the surface markings of this interesting
planet. We are assured by the astronomers that some
of them are of a permanent character, while others
undergo periodical changes. The alternate appear-
ance and disappearance of white patches at the polar
regions suggest the presence of ice and snow, and
therefore of an atmosphere, which renders life not
only possible, but highly probable. It should be noted,
however, that, on account of the greater distance of
the planet from the sun, the light received by Mars
is very much less than the earth receives, although its
heat from recent measurements cannot be much below
that of the earth. It should also be remembered that
the diameter of Mars is not much greater than one-
half that of the earth. There are indications which
are interpreted by some as explainable by the exist-
ence on the planet of intelligent beings. Should such
exist, we are naturally led to reflect upon the geogra-
phy and landscape of the planet as compared with
those of our earth. But the purpose of this paper is
not to discuss these speculations, but to exhibit
graphically the peculiarly
favorable conditions under
which the astronomer will
labor during the month of
The ability to observe a
planet satisfactorily ob-
viously depends very much
upon its proximity to the
earth. The distance be-
tween the earth and Mars
varies between very wide
limits. This is due to the
great eccentricity of the
planet's orbit, which is
second only to that of
The accompanying draw-
ing is a plot of the orbits
of the earth and Mars;
and while they are ellip-
tical, the difference be-
tween the lengths of the
major and minor axes in
each case is scarcely no-
ticeable in a plot of these
dimensions. But the ec-
centricity of the orbit of
Mars is between five and
six times that of the earth,
which accounts for Che
great variation of the dis-
tances between the two
planets at different oppo-
sitions. The center of the
sun is represented at S.
Through this point is
drawn P A, the major axis
of the orbit of Mars. P
represents the perihelion,
and A the aphelion of the
In order to obtain a
clear understanding of the
precise relation between
these orbits, the reader
should realize that the
earth's orbit is represented in the plane of the paper;
while the orbit of Mars is inclined to it at a very
small angle (nearly 2 deg. ). That part of the orbit
of Mars which includes aphelion, viz., b A c, is sup-
posed to be above, while the remaining portion, viz.,
c P b, is supposed to be below the paper. The line 6 c
is the intersection of the planes of the orbits of the
The positions of the earth and Mars are represented
at different dates beginning January 5. Straight lines
representing the distances between them are drawn
connecting the centers of the planets at nine corre-
sponding dates, viz., January 5, March 2, April 27,
June 22, July 6, 13, 20, September 14, and November 9.
The greatest possible distance would be reached if
Mars were at conjunction and aphelion at the same
date. This distance, represented by d A, is equal to
the entire diameter of the earth's orbit (=de) in-
creased by e A. The least possible distance between
the planets would be reached if Mars were at opposi-
tion and perihelion on the same day, i. e., if Mars were
at P and the earth at d. It is represented by d P, and
is equal to the minimum distance between the sun
and Mars (= S P) diminished by the radius of the
Some of the variations in the apparent diameter of
Mars between these extreme possible positions are rep-
resented within the plot of the earth's orbit at six
dates of next year; and in each case the illuminated
and shadow surfaces of the planet are indicated. The
reader will readily determine the position of the dark
surface prior to July 6; and will see that its position
is changed after that date.
If the small circle f be taken to represent Mars
when at that conjunction which is most unfavorable
for observation, i. e., when the earth is at d and Mars
at A (the greatest possible distance), the circle g will
represent him at the opposition which is most favor-
able for this purpose, i. e., when the earth is at d and
Mars at P (the least possible distance). The circle g
is more than seven times the diameter of f, or more
than fifty times the area.
The opposition which is most unfavorable for ob-
servation would occur if the earth were at e and Mars
at A. In this position Mars would be represented by
a circle a little smaller than that dated September 14
within the plot. The reader will readily convince him-
self of this by comparing the distances between the
planets. The measurement e A is a little greater than
that representing the distance between the earth and
Mars on September 14.
By a comparison of the dates the reader will ob-
serve the gradual approach of the earth to Mars dur-
ing the first six months of 1907, and their gradual sep-
aration during the latter part of the year. On July
observer of the peculiarly advantageous position of
Mars relative to the earth during the month of July,
THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF MARS AND THE EARTH DURING THE YEAR 1907.
6, when opposition occurs, the sun, the earth, and
Mars, in the plot, are in the same straight line; and
at first sight we may be disposed to say that the mini-
mum distance will now be reached; but on a careful
examination we discover that, owing to the great ec^
centricity of the orbit of Mars, and the consequent
diminution of his distance from the sun, the shortest
distance from the earth will be reached a week later,
i. e., July 13, when the earth will have gained upon
Mars about 2% deg. On July 20 the distance between
the planets will differ a very little from that of July
6, when the earth will have gained nearly 5 deg. on
Mars. During this period of two weeks, viz., from
July 6 to 20, the apparent comparative diameter of
the planet will be represented by the circle opposite
the date July 6 within the plot. If we compare it with
that marked g, we see that its diameter will not differ
very much from that which it would attain if the
planet should reach its apparent maximum size. The
difference is in the proportion of 65 to 72, or about
An examination of the great variations in the ap-
parent diameter of the planet, together with a con-
sideration of the intensity of the light received and
reflected when it is at its maximum distance from
the sun and earth, as compared with the amount re-
ceived and reflected when these distances are reduced
almost to a minimum, will convince the most casual
RAILWAY ACCIDENTS AND SURGERY.
Despite the institution of the most elaborate precau-
tionary and disciplinary methods, the railroad oper-
ator, owing to the nature of his calling, is necessarily
exposed to accidents and fatalities. According to the
latest available returns upon this subject, no less than
3,632 men were killed and 67,067 injured during the
course of a year upon the railroads of the United
States. In Great Britain the calamity returns are con-
siderably lighter, despite the congested nature of the
railroad traffic, the fatality roll aggregating 416 killed
and 6,590 injured. In this country one man out of
every 357 is killed and one in 19 injured. In Great
Britain the percentage is considerably lower, the pro-
portion being one in every 10,144 killed and one in
747 injured. Upon the railroads in the latter country
ambulance corps have been inaugurated among the
operatives for the express purpose of succoring their
injured comrades. The railroad operator, no matter
in what path his duties may lie, is ever confronted by
danger in a wide variety of forms. At the same time,
many injuries have proved ultimately fatal, because
of the long period of time that has elapsed between
the time of the injury and
the arrival of the doctor;
whereas had first aid been
rendered, the life might
have been saved, or at any
rate the extent of the in-
jury appreciably mini-
mized, by the successful
prevention of subsequent
complications. In this
country the effect of such
delay is particularly mark-
ed, owing to the great dis-
tances separating points
at which medical aid can
be obtained. More than
once, when a man has been
injured during the journey
of the train, he has had
to lie unattended for an
hour or two, so that when
the surgeon received the
case, the effects of the ac-
cident had so developed
that the possibility of sav-
ing the life ha'd become
Realizing this salient
point, the employees on the
Boston and Maine Railroad
have adopted the move-
ment in vogue among Brit-
ish railroads, and have in-
augurated a means where-
by the rendering of first
aid to the injured may be
taught among the numer-
The scheme was origin-
ated by the Railroad
Branch of the Boston
Young Men's Christian As-
sociation, and when it was
brought before the direc-
tors of the company, • its
widespread benefits were
immediately realized. The
authorities forthwith sanctioned the idea, and decided
to defray the cost of initiating the men into first-aid
work, the task of drilling the men being devolved upon
Dr. H. H. Hartung, who is an active member of the
National First Aid to Injured Society. Among the men
too the scheme was warmly received, and the whole
of the employees are being made proficient in the
art of succoring the injured. The large shunting
yards are the scenes of the greater majority of acci-
dents, and the railway authorities have shown prac-
tical sympathy with the movement by the establish-
ment of emergency stations, replete with every ap-
pliance necessary to render first aid, and to which the
injured can be carried to await the arrival of the doc-
tor. The greater part of the injuries received by rail-
way men comprise fractures, contusions, crushings of
various parts of the body, burns and scalds, and in
some instances the supervening of blood poisoning
within a short time of the accident, owing to the en-
trance of some foreign substance into the wound.
"Any surgeon will tell you," states Dr. Hartung,
"that nearly everything depends upon the skillful and
successful treatment of an injury immediately after
it has been inflicted. Many an accident which is com-
paratively trivial in nature develops seriously, owing
to the shock the system has incurred before the prac-
titioner arrives. For instance, take a compound frac-
ture. Many a poor fellow struck down has lain in
November 24, 1906.
agony for an hour or so, owing to the absence of even
the most rudimentary ideas of first aid, and when at
last medical assistance is obtained, the case has so far
progressed that it is practically hopeless for the pa-
tient's life to be saved, or should the medical man
triumph, the man possibly becomes a cripple for life,
when had his comrades been able to succor him im-
mediately, the subsequent complications might have
been averted. Again, the knowledge of how to apply
substitutes they can from things which are within
convenient reach. In this direction the men have ex-
hibited considerable ingenuity. At times efficient
stretchers have been quickly and rudely fashioned
from branches of trees growing on the railway em-
bankments, while should wood be unavailable, as is
the case in open and desert country, serviceable splints
can be improvised from pillows or even coats.
When the men have mastered theoretically the prin-
gaged in practising the proper methods of removing
an injured man from a precarious position, and carry-
ing him either single-handed or with assistance to a
more convenient spot. A common type of casualty is
that in which one of the men on the engine, perhaps
while walking round inspecting or oiling his charge,
is struck by the cowcatcher through the engine start-
ing unexpectedly, and is then thrown with force across
the buffer frame. In such an accident the injuries
Instructing the Class in Bandaging a Victim at the Scene
of the Accident.
Bandaging the Head and Limbs. Because of Great Distances, an Hour May
Elapse Before Medical Aid Can Be Obtained.
the tourniquet and check bleeding is very often a
matter of life and death, while the ability to treat
poisonings, dress rough wounds, severe scalds, and
burns very often gives the unfortunate patient a
chance of living.
The railway men are taken through a complete
curriculum, which is divided into two stages. The
first course comprises a series of ten lectures together
with the study of a manual. At first the men are
acquainted with the anatomy of the human body, the
names and positions of the various bones, and the
functions of the muscles and vital organs. Then the
blood circulation system is explained, as well as the
principal arteries and veins. They are instructed in
the application of the tourniquet and other means of
checking bleeding. Respiration is then dealt with,
and the men shown how to handle suffocation cases
in various forms."
These elementary principles explained, the employees
have described to them the various kinds of wounds,
such as contusions, lacerations, poisonings, and so
forth, together with the correct treatment for the
respective types of injuries. Burns and scalds are
treated, and demonstrations carried out to show the
proper methods of applying the various bandages.
Following this comes the treatment of sprains, dislo-
cations, fractures, together with the utilization of
splints. The men are practically shown how to im-
provise necessary appliances from the various facili-
ties that are available, such as brooms and broken
boxes. Many of them carry upon the trains complete
emergency kits, but others are not so fortunately pro-
vided. Then they have to devise the most serviceable
ciples expounded in the lectures, they are submitted
to a rigorous practical training, whereby they are able
to demonstrate to the instructor how they would act
in cases of emergency. For these tests the various
shunting yards are utilized, one man acting as the
supposititious victim. At such times one may see little
groups of men darting hither and thither among the
engines and cars with stretchers and other equipment
with the utmost coolness, precision, and dispatch. The
victim is supposed to have been crushed between two
vehicles, run down by the locomotive, fallen from the
train, or scalded. At the word of command the men
dart across the rails, dodging the traffic, armed with
their requisite impedimenta, and quickly, though ten-
derly, pick up the injured man, swathe him in ban-
dages or splints, repose him on #, stretcher, and con*
sign him to the railway car ready for the practitioner
when the train arrives at a convenient point for such
assistance, since in the sparsely-populated districts an
hour or two may elapse before the train reaches a
station where a doctor is available. While engaged
in these operations the doctor-instructor follows them
through their work, pointing out the various symp-
toms of different injuries that the men must observe,
and correcting them should their treatment be er-
roneous, at the same time carefully timing the opera-
tions. "It is imperative," urges Dr. Hartung, "that
you should administer aid in the simplest and most
effective manner. You must do something, and what
is more important, do it quickly. Many an injury
simply depends upon the speed with which the wound
is bandaged up."
In another part of the yards men may be seen en-
invariably comprise fractures of the leg and skull.
The position of the patient is an awkward one, and
great skill and care are required in his removal with-
out accentuating the pain or aggravating the injury.
Again, there is a proper way of removing a victim
from the train itself, when the case is not sufficiently
serious in character to necessitate the employment of
a stretcher. The man is placed in a chair, and gently
removed from the car to the ground without the
When the men have become proficient in this work,
they are initiated into the peculiarities of poisoning.
The differences between common poisons are explained
at great length, together with their respective symp-
toms and the methods of treating such cases with the
means ge&erally within reach.
Shock to the nervous system as the result of a
serious accident, and Unconsciousness, together with
the treatments for the same, are also explained. Other
forms of unconsciousness, such as might result from
fits, concussion, and sunstroke, are fully dealt with,
and the best remedies shown. Sunstroke is a very
prevalent complaint among the railway men during
the summer months, and in many instances the "at-
tacks are of such severity that instant treatment is
essential to avoid fatality.
When the men have thoroughly mastered the theo-
ries in this work of first aid, they are submitted to a
severe oral and written examination. Those that pass
through this ordeal are awarded a diploma. The suc-
cessful student can then, if he feels so disposed, par-
ticipate in the advanced series of five lectures. These
The Proper Way of Removing an Injured Man Who Has Been
Struck and Has Fallen on the Front End of the Engine.
The Correct Way of Carrying an
Injured Man Single-Handed.
A MEDICAL CORPS FOB RAILROAD OPERATORS.
Struck and Thrown Upon the Cowcatcher, With
Serious Injury to the Legs and Skull.
November 24, 1906,
and devastating the towns on the west coast of this State, in-
cluding Pensacola, it veered farther to the west, including in its
zone much of the low-lying country that comprises the south-
ern portions of Alabama and Mississippi, and the islands skirt-
ing their shore line.
In the confusion incident to the storm, the newspaper re-
ports from the places visited by the storm are in the main so
incomplete, that the reader cannot get an intelligent and
comprehensive idea of the extent of the disaster and the
actual causes of the greatest damage. Enough information is
available from Mobile, however, to describe the character of
the disturbance, the actual destructive force of the wind and
water, and other phases which would be of special interest to
the student of meteorology. The duration of the hurricane
(for such it can properly be called) was remarkable. Begin-
ning shortly after the midnight of September 26, the wind
deal more in detail with the
work of first aid, while the
qualifying examination is much
more severe, the successful ones
receiving the medallion of the
The whole cost of the under-
taking is borne by the railway
authorities, so that the em-
ployees do not have to expend
a single penny in acquiring their
knowledge. All that they have
to do is to devote their own
time to the instruction, and in
this connection they have dis-
played commendable willing-
Indirectly also the movement
is of inestimable value to the
traveling community in general,
especially in view of the fact
that railway disasters in Amer-
ica are much more frequent and serious than in Eng-
land. A scrutiny of the points at which such catas-
trophes occur will demonstrate the fact that they fre-
quently happen at some lonely and desolate spot far
removed from medical aid. Consequently, two or three
hours may elapse before the doctors arrive on the
scene, and the death roll is accordingly heavier than
would have been the case, had some assistance been
forthcoming within a shorter time of the accident.
With these trained railway men, the injured are ban-
daged up until more expert skill can arrive.
Typical Scene Along Mobile's Wharf Front ; a Fruit Steamer Cast up on Shore.
EFFECTS OF THE RECENT HURRICANE AT MOBILE.
BY DAY ALLEN W1LLEY.
One of the most interesting storms, from a scientific
standpoint, which has ever been experienced in the
Southern States was that which recently caused so
much damage along the Florida peninsula and the
coast line of Alabama and Mississippi. Generally
known as a "tropical hurricane," it differed from the
usual disturbances .of this class by reason of its dura-
tion, while in some features it bore a resemblance' to
the cyclone which at times prevails in the level re-
gions of the West.
As is well known, the storm center hung over the
West Indian Islands and the adjacent waters for a
considerable period before it changed its course to the
northwest. Consequently, the hurricane was not un-
expected; its violence, however, surprised even the mete-
orological experts. Passing over the Florida peninsula
blew for fully twelve hours with a minimum velocity,
with the exception of a few intervals or lulls, of 40
miles. The average velocity as recorded by the in-
struments at the Mobile Weather Bureau was but 55
miles an hour — not sufficient in the opinion of the
experts to cause the destruction that resulted. The
maximum velocity, however, was much greater. There
were times when it exceeded 70 miles an hour. These
"gusts," which might be termed a series of tornadoes,
were responsible for most of the damage inland.
The site of Mobile . is such that it was exposed to
the full' blast of the hurricane; for the city is built
on ground which is low and flat. It is located partly
at the head of Mobile Bay and on the northwest shore,
a portion of the water front being on the Mobile River.
A House on the Long Shell Road ; the Collapse Was Due to the VV ashing
Away of the Foundations.
EFFECTS OF THE RECENT HURRICANE AT MOBILE
A River Steamer Lying Totally Wrecked in a Slip.
November 24, 1906.
This was another unfortunate circumstance, since the
direction of the wind was such as literally to pile up
the water of the bay and drive it ashore, the water
rising fully ten feet above the surface of the piers.
The bay is 36 miles long, and the hurricane swept
its entire length in the direction of Mobile. To this
fact is due the extensive loss by flooding; but the
terrific force of the wind was shown in every part of
the city, and many were the curious effects which it
As we have stated, to those familiar with the
work of the western cyclone the storm of September
27 bore a very noticeable resemblance to western dis-
turbances. Objects offering little resistance were in
many instances unharmed, while greater obstructions
were razed or torn to pieces, and scattered over the
ground. An odd prank of the wind was the partial
destruction of a frame building located at the junc-
tion of two streets. Although trees and telegraph
poles were leveled all about it, and the structure was
apparently directly in the path of the hurricane, only
a part of it was demolished. A partition wall extend-
ing from the ground floor to the roof had been built
from front to back. The air current cut off a part of
the house on one side of the partition as neatly as if
it had been torn away by human hands. The part
removed was blown to pieces, but not a crack was
made in the walls left standing, except what had been
there before the disaster.
While most of the residences and smaller structures
in the city are of wood, in the business section are a
number of brick and stone warehouses. The churches
and public edifices are mostly of massive design.
bor. Hurled against coasting schooners and other
small vessels, they crushed in their hulls as if they
had been made of paper. One of the most picturesque
wrecks was of a river steamer. Lifted by the com-
bined force of the wind and waves, it was dashed
against the wharf with such violence, that its frame-
work was twisted from end to end, and the steamer
buckled amidships. In this position it toppled against
the wharf and sank.
The hulls of the ocean-going craft riding at anchor
suffered little damage, save where struck by the float-
ing missiles driven by the waves; but rigging and
spars were blown away like so many splinters and
threads. The height of the waves can best be appre-
ciated, when it is stated that the largest of the flot-
sam, such as timbers two feet thick, were pitched upon
the piers with smaller driftwood, some of the piles
being ten feet high above the flooring of the piers.
The piling supporting much of the wharf front was
crushed in by blows from floating material, and the
many small boats were thrown against it. The ware-
houses for storing bananas and other fruit presented
a curious appearance. One of the largest had all of
its roof and one of its side walls blown completely
away. In another instance the ends of a shed were
blown out, leaving the sides and roof intact. An ex-
amination of the wreckage of these buildings revealed
another point of similarity to the Western cyclone:
the destructive force had apparently been exerted with-
in, as the planking and framework had been thrown
outward in each case, and not inward. This seems to
prove the theory that a wind current of great velocity
causes such a vacuum in its vicinity, that it creates a
The Alpine Trip of the Balloon " Milano."
The balloon "Milano" left the grounds of the In-
ternational Exposition of Milan on Sunday, November
11, and arrived at Aix-les-Bains after having traveled
over Mont Blanc, a distance of 175 miles, in three
The "Milano" had splendid weather from the start,
and soon reached an altitude of 16,000 feet, accom-
panied by 10 deg. P. of frost. The balloon traveled
northward over Mont Blanc, and as it progressed it
grew colder and colder. Below them the travelers
could see nothing except an extensive field of snow,
broken by sharp peaks and dotted with frozen Alpine
lakes. The highest altitude reached was 20,500 feet.
The rarefied atmosphere made it necessary for the men
to resort to their supply of oxygen to keep alive. Ait
one point of the trip Signor Usuelli succumbed to the
nerveus strain and burst into tears. On the other side
of the mountain the balloon descended gradually and
landed safely at Aix-les-Bains.
The "Milano" has a capacity of 1,000 cubic meters.
The men in the car were Signor Usuelli and Signor
Crespi. The report received is from the latter aero-
That there is a silver lining to every cloud, Dr.
Stoklasa, professor at the Technical High School at
Prague, again proves in the results of his tests in con-
nection with the late eruption of Mount Vesuvius. In
fact, according to his calculations, the crater has
thrown out upward of fifty milliard kilos of volcanic
mud, sand, lava, ashes, etc., upon the surrounding
The Scene at the Oyster Docks ; the Wharves Were Demolished for Over a
Mile and the Oyster Fleet Sunk or Piled up on the Piers.
House on St. Louis Street With a Side Blown Away.
EFFECTS OF THE RECENT HURRICANE AT MOBILE.
Christ Episcopal Church is of masonry, except the
steeple, which was built in three sections, the two
upper ones being supported on wooden pillars. The
force of the wind removed every vestige of the tower,
even snapping off the timbers which anchored it to the
framework of the main roof. The only protection to
the city, if it could be called a protection, was the
tree growth. Many of the. streets were shaded with
trees from two to four feet in diameter at the base
of the trunk. Bienville Square, one of the smaller
parks in the heart of the city, contains a grove of the
largest species. On the avenues could be seen rows of
fallen trunks, not a single tree left standing for
blocks, the impact of the air current being so great
that usually the main portions of the roots were torn
from the ground as completely as if the work had been
done by some powerful explosive. For some unex-
plained reason, most of the trees in Bienville Square,
while not uprooted, were stripped of every twig and
small branch, leaving them absolutely bare of foliage.
On the other hand, very little of the foliage was torn
from the trees blown over, except that on the side of
the tree which struck the ground.
Skirting the bay for a distance of about six miles
was a driveway composed of oyster shells packed down
to the depth of a foot or more, and rolled until the
foundation was apparently as solid as a mass of stone
or concrete. The action of the wind and water, how-
ever, so completely destroyed this, that not a piece as
large as the width of a shovel could be found after
the storm. The shipping in the harbor suffered not
only from the wind, but from the waves which it
created; but much of the havoc on the water front
was caused by the timbers, logs, and other material
which had been washed from the shore into the har-
strong suction or draft, which often causes more dam-
age than the current itself.
Observers of the effect of the air currents agree in
the statement that they frequently changed their di-
rections. The continual veering of the weather vanes
was further proof of this fact. The pathway of the
storm was of such width that it was not clearly
marked by the> debris left in its wake, as is so fre-
quently the case in a Western cyclone.
The location of Mobile also afforded an opportunity
to show the enormous lifting force which a violent
wind exerts upon even a small body of water. The
heavy rains rapidly swelled Mobile River and its tribu-
taries. While this flood water flowed into' the bay,
the rapid rise in the harbor as already stated was due
more to the fact that the wind crowded the water into
it. Waves which resembled Atlantic seas rolled in-
shore to such a height that the water washed over the
wharves and along the streets for a. distance of over
half a mile from the piers. Much of the $5,000,000
damage caused in Mobile and its vicinity was due to
the undermining of buildings by this unexpected flood.
m ■ i *
Sweating of Pipes.
Insulating cold water pipes is frequently done in
sections of the country where the water flowing
through the pipes is at a comparatively low tempera-
ture, the warm air passing over them cooling so quick-
lj as to cause condensation of the moisture in the air.
The wet spots under the water pipes are frequently
attributed to leaks, but the experienced plumber diag-
noses the case as one of sweating. The remedy is to
cover the pipes with some kind of non-conducting
covering like some of the asbestos productions, protect-
ing the pipes from the warm air.
ground. These, he estimates, contain an average of
at least 0.1 per cent nitrogen in the form of ammonia.
The mountain has consequently produced about fifty
million kilos of fertilizer, representing more ammonia
and nitrous acid than is used in the whole of England.
He has found besides enormous deposits of potassium
phosphate and other fertilizers readily assimilated by
the vegetable kingdom. The vapors constantly rising
from the mouth of Vesuvius already contain much
plant food, in fact the surroundings of volcanoes are
always highly fertile, and have no need whatever of
artificial fertilizers. Dr. Stoklasa has shown that am-
monia is always rising from the crater as white smoke.
« i • t *
A New Comet Located by Holger Thiele.
A cable dispatch has been received at Harvard Ob-
servatory from Prof. Kreutz at Kiel saying that a
comet, visible through a small telescope, was discov-
ered by Holger Thiele at Copenhagen early Sunday
morning in right ascension 9 hours 15 minutes 21.3
seconds, declination 12 degrees 16 minutes 50 seconds.
A second observation cabled at the same time gave
the position in right ascension 9 hours 16 minutes 2.3
seconds, declination 12 degrees 28 minutes 31 seconds.
An alloy called "Monel-Metal" consists of:
The alloy possesses a high tensile strength and elas-
tic limit. It is also non-corrosive and takes a high
polish. The color is practically that of nickel. — Brass.
November 24, 1906.
SOFT CRYSTALS SHOWING APPARENT LIFE.
BY DR. ALFRED GRADENWITZ.
The present tendency of physical science is rather
toward evidencing a continuity between provinces that
were formerly entirely separated from each other than
to establishing new boundaries corresponding to new
categories. The impossibility of establishing a defi-
nite boundary between solid and liquid states has been
evidenced in the course of the last few years by the
work of Prof. 0. Lehmann, of Karlsruhe, Germany,
whose researches on liquid crystals deserve the high-
est interest, the more so as the soft crystallinic forms
produced and investigated by this physicist show
some striking analogies with the world of living be-
ings, thus constituting another link in the chain of
recent researches on the boundary between living and
apparently dead matter, to which attention has been
drawn especially by Butler Burke's recent investiga-
tions. As a complement to these researches on one
hand and to Prof. Leduc's work on the other (of
which the writer has published an account in a recent
issue of the Scientific American) the following ob-
servations may be of interest.
An organic substance called para-azoxy-cinnamic-
acid-ethyl-ether, obtained in the "fleeting" crystal-
linic state between 139 deg. and 248 deg. C, is one
of the most remarkable substances susceptible of as-
suming this condition. In fact, the phenomena ob-
served under the microscope seemingly show a per-
fect analogy with the phenomena of living beings,
so that partisans of the ancient theory of spontane-
ous generation might avail themselves thereof in es-
tablishing the basis of their theory. While modern
science abhors premature conclusions, so far from
discarding such phenomena as are incompatible with
present laws, it should most thoroughly and without
any prejudice examine any facts brought to its notice.
oil drops, especially in case their position is a cor-
responding one. In the event, however, of their being
placed in opposition, the summit and base of the
pyramids coinciding, twin crystals will be produced,
showing at the juncture, owing to the refraction of
light, a cross on a gray rhomb.
While crystals of an oily consistency are produced
as the temperature continues dropping, they are no
more able to withstand the pressure of surface ten-
sion (increased owing to the decrease in temperature,
and which acts like an elastic membrane encom-
passing the whole) so as to be compressed to spheres,
the crystalline structure of which is only manifest-
ed by their special refraction. If any one of these
spheres is turned over, it is found not to be absolutely
round, but to show a flattening or funnel-shaped de-
pression at some point, from the middle of which a
dark straight line leads to the centrum of the sphere.
If the latter be so placed that the depression is situ-
ated either on the top or underneath, everything be-
ing symmetrical round the center, it will show a set
of concentric circles; this is what is called the "first
main position." If on the other hand the depression
be situated sideways, the dark stroke will be seen
leading from the center to the periphery; this is what
Prof. Lehmann terms the "second main position."
If now two drops combine in the first position, one
drop with only one core or center and one depression
will be obtained, and the same in the second main po-
sition if the positions be corresponding ones. -If, how-
ever, the depressions be placed in opposition, both will
be maintained in the resulting drop. If finally two
individuals strike each other at their depressions, a
twin form will be produced, the spheres being com-
bined without flowing together into a single one. Such
twin structures may also be produced spontaneously,
an extension growing out of the depression of a drop
the phenomenon, he will see the serpent to be instantly
contracted to a sphere, thrown away by the force of
Similar phenomena are observed in the case of the
ordinary rods. These will in fact bend into a ring,
while a contraction to a sphere occurs as soon as the
ends meet. A similar effect is observed in the case
of the contact of two rods, while a combination of
rods to twins and threefold structures is observed in
some cases. Serpents will sometimes spring up from
the depression of drops in the second main position,
or else a given serpent will give rise to the produc-
tion of a thinner one, or else its thickness will grad-
ually decrease during growth, resulting in a structure
analogous to a germ filament, showing a similar oscil-
latory motion of the tail.
Rods and serpentine structures are frequently ob-
served in the case of the separation of a bud connect-
ing the latter to the mother individual as well as in
the case of a subdivision. The addition of foreign
substances may result in some kind of poisoning, the
phenomena of motion being slackened or the morpho-
genetic force vanishing, or else some disfiguration be-
ing produced. Even the absorbing force of the glass
may result in disturbances, the drops being attracted
by it. A multitude of remarkable structures is formed
even in normal conditions, a serpent being, e. g., sud-
denly separated into a chain of droplets, or else into a
miniature rod showing expansions which are gradually
converted into a drop.
m 1 M 1 »
Wormholes In Wood,
Wood felled and worked up is frequently subject
to wormholing. The sapwood is much more attacked
than the perfect wood, and it has to be cut off when
we wish to produce durable work; whence a pretty con-
siderable loss. Mons. Emile Mer noticed that the spe-
Long Crystals Squirming Like Serpents.
SOFT CRYSTALS SHOWING APPARENT LIFE.
Fleeting Crystals at Rest as Seen by Polarized Light.
In the present case its task will be to investigate how
far the forces working in the living organism agree
with the forces of lifeless nature. A striking differ-
ence in the behavior of these two classes, as so far ob-
served, has been that while the growth of living be-
ings takes place in virtue of internal absorption ("in-
tussusception"), and while by the copulation of two
individuals into- a single one, or the subdivision of
one individual into two or more, an increase or de-
crease in their size is produced, the crystals so far
known would grow only in virtue of the gradual add-
ing together of molecules. Now the substance re-
ferred to in the beginning just shows the same phe-
nomena as were so far attributed solely to living mat-
ter, and in addition exhibits some most striking mo-
tional phenomena, that are quite analogous to those
of micro-organisms. So far from considering these
soft crystals as living beings, Prof. Lehmann suggests
that they fill up a gap in our knowledge of molecular
effects, the forces acting in the case of both classes
being possibly identical.
When heating a small amount of the substance
above mentioned, after moistening it with some mono-
bromine-naphthaline as solvent until only a few par-
ticles of the jelly- are left, and cooling to about 200
deg. C, some short, square columns with rounded
edges and angles will, under the microscope, be found
to be. separated, showing in some cases the shape of
pyramids. The lower the temperature, the less will
be their tenacity, possibly owing to their absorbing
some of the solvent in a way analogous to other crys-
tals, dyeing stuffs, etc. While being colorless when
inspected in a longitudinal direction, they show a
yellow and sometimes a reddish-yellow tint on being
Whenever two individuals come in contact with each
other, they are seen immediately to combine like two
gradually taking the size of an equivalent sphere.
This shows a perfect analogy with the springing up
of a bud, as observed in the case of micro-organisms,
this bud being thrown off after some time, and con-
tinuing its existence as an independent individual of
the same species as the original. A perfect analogue to
the ordinary phenomenon of subdivision as observed
in the case of the smallest organisms is likewise noted,
the drop in the first main position being frequently
drawn out to a bacterium-shaped small rod, this being
suddenly divided into two pieces. Before this separa-
tion a sort of partition wall is observed at the dividing
point, as ascertained .by a strange light refraction due
to the twin position of the molecules.
So far from being at rest, the drops are susceptible
of rotating around their axis. The miniature rods
frequently show phenomena of motion analogous to
those of the diatoms, being a slow creeping both for-
ward and backward, while passing through what seem
to be obstacles to the motion. The small rods in some
cases suddenly take the shape of long serpents, bend-
ing incessantly with great energy, and even moving
from their ordinary position and performing what
seems to be a peristaltic motion. The growth of these
serpents, which is evidently intensified by cooling,
actually forms an analogy to: growth by internal ab-
sorption (intussusception) in the case of living onan-
isms. Though the separation of substance occurs at
the surface of the serpent, its thickness remains per-
fectly constant, there being only an alternation of its
length. Any molecules joining the structure are evi-
dently drawn immediately into the interior, dispers-
ing the existing molecules. Sometimes such a serpent
will expand with extraordinary speed, covering the
whole field of vision of the microscope, while some-
times disappearing before the eyes of the observer.
If the latter succeed in studying the various phases of
cies attacked are those whose sapwood contains the
most starch; on the other hand, analysis revealed to
him that the dust from the wormholes no longer con-
tained starch. The insect, therefore, introduced itself
into the wood in order to nourish itself at the expense
of this material. Now, starch is produced by the
leaves under the influence of the light; there go
branches to the trunk and to the roots through the
liber or inner part of the bark. Removing a ring of
bark intercepts the descent. The starch newly elabor-
ated accumulates above the ring; that which existed
in the inferior region is soon absorbed and transformed
by the cells of the wood, whose food it constitutes.
Hence an annulation of a few centimeters' length
at the top of the trunk, three or four months before
the felling, is sufficient to eliminate the starch from
the trunk. The best season for operating is the
spring; the trees can then be felled in October. It is
essential not to allow any shoot to develop below the
excoriated part. — L'lllustration.
It is said that tantalum has great possibilities when
used for tool making, its toughness and hardness rival-
ing the diamond. Von Bolton made a laboratory ex-
periment recently, when a sheet 0.04 inch was ham-
mered from the first piece produced of the pure metal,
and all attempts to drill a hole through it were found
to be futile. Finally a diamond drill was employed,
and after continuous work for seventy hours at a
speed of 5,000 revolutions per minute, about one-fourth
of the task had been completed, while the drill was
so badly worn as to necessitate a discontinuance of
the test. Tantalum is entirely non-magnetic,- has a
specific gravity varying from 14 to 17, and fuses at
about 2,300 deg. C. (4,172- deg. P.). In the form of a
wire it has a tensile strength of about 128,000 pounds
per square inch. — Mechanical World.
A UNIQUE NON-REFILLABLE EoTTLE.
A non-refillable bottle has recently been invented,
whose chief claim to distinction lies in the fact that it
has no mouth, but is assembled and filled through an
opening in the bottom, which is thereafter closed in
such a manner that it cannot be opened again. A
pair of small apertures are provided in the side of
the neck, through which the contents can be poured
out. The bottle is first blown in the form shown at
the left in the engraving, with no openings in it what-
ever. In the neck of the bottle are two bosses of thin
glass, while the bottom is formed with a recess. The
upper wall of this recess is broken away to effect an
opening into the bottle, and this leaves an inwardly-
extending annular flange with rough or broken edges.
The bosses on the neck are also broken off, to form
the apertures through which the contents of the bottle
may be poured out. A metal cap is fitted over the neck
of the bottle and held in place by crimping the edges
over a shoulder in the glass. A cork ring between the
cap and the bottle neck serves to seal the apertures.
The opening in the bottom of the bottle is large
enough to admit the mechanism which is fitted into
the neck. This mechanism is clearly illustrated in
one of the views, which shows a section of the neck.
It comprises a tube, in the upper end of which a ball
valve is seated. The lower end of the tube is en-
larged to receive a member in which a second ball
valve is seated. This member is securely fitted into
the bottle neck by means of a cork collar. The bottle
may now be inverted and tilled, after which the open-
ing in the bottom is closed by a glass stopper. The
stopper is provided with an annular recess, in which
a cork collar is fitted. The collar bears tightly against
the annular flange of the opening, and swells over the
broken edge. The exterior face of the stopper lies
flush with the bottom of the bottle, so that it cannot
be pried out, and being of glass, it cannot be easily
drilled out. In use, the metal cap of the bottle and
the cork collar are removed from the neck; then when
the bottle is tilted the ball valves are unseated, permit-
ting the liquid to flow through recesses past the lower
valve, then through the tube, and out of the apertures
in the neck of the bottle. These apertures are so
placed that it would be impossible to tamper with the
valves by inserting a wire into the neck of the bottle.
The mechanism is simple and inexpensive, and does
not require an expert to assemble it. The complete
bottle costs but a fraction more than an ordinary
one. The inventor of this bottle is Mr. L. A. Robert-
son, 638 Bast 139th Street, New York, N. Y.
AW IMPBOVED TRY-SQUARE.
Illustrated in the accompanying engraving is an im-
proved try-square of such design as to enable the mark-
ing of two faces of the work simultaneously. Further-
more, it permits of marking the timber for a square or
plumb cut, and also for a beveled cut. In general, the
new square resembles the standard type, consisting, as
it does, of a stock at one end of which a blade is
attached, projecting at right angles thereto. On the
stock a central tongue is formed, which extends longi-
tudinally of the. stock. . The; thickness of this .tongue
is the same as that of the blade, so that its faces
lie flush therewith. A similar tongue is formed on
the end of the stock by the projecting edge of the
blade. Thus far the description applies equally well
to the standard square. The improvement, however,
consists in a short blade, which fits at right angles to
and across the main blade, and is seated in the recess
in the stock, so that its outer face lies 1 flush with the
edge of the stock. The short blade thus forms two
wings lying on opposite sides of the main blade. One
of these wings is square, so that its upper edge lies in
the plane of the upper edge of the main blade. The
other wing, however, is
cut away, so that its upper
edge forms an angle of 45
degrees with the plane of
the main blade. In use
the try-square may be
placed against the edge of
a timber, when, if a plumb
cut is desired, one face of
the timber may be marked
along the edge of the main
blade, and the other face
of the timber along the
edge of the square wing. If a bevel cut is to be made,
the timber is marked along the inclined edge of the
other wing, while the other face of the timber is
marked, as before, along the edge of the main blade.
When the try-square is used in the ordinary way, the
wings will not be found to offer any inconvenience,
but will assist in. keeping the stock square with the
edge of the timber. The main blade is provided on
November 24, 1906.
AN IMPROVED TRY-
A UNIQUE NON-REFILLABLE BOTTLE.
each face with a graduated arc which can be conven-
iently used as a protractor. The inventors of this
try-square are Messrs. James Collie and Charles Beau-
chene, of Lake Linden, Mich.
«in > ■
Proposed Excavation of Herculaueum.
The recent great eruption of Mount Vesuvius drew
the attention of the entire civilized world to the region
in which the great volcano manifested its activity. It
is, therefore, with exceptional interest that we hear
of the proposed completion of the excavation of Her-
culaneum, buried under the first great historic up-
heaval of Vesuvius in 79 A. D. ' Prof. Charles Wald-
stein, Professor of Pine Arts at King's College, Cam-
bridge, England, has long entertained the idea of a
complete excavation of the buried city, and has at last
succeeded in perfecting an agreement with the Italian
government for the carrying out of the project. Prof.
Waldstein has obtained the active co-operation of King
Victor Emanuel of Italy, as president of the organiza-
tion, and has, furthermore, had the assistance and
support of Emperor William, King Edward, and Presi-
dent Roosevelt. Prof. Waldstein is an American,
though holding the professorship of Fine Arts at Cam-
bridge. He began the preparatory work of forming
his organization for the purpose of laying bare the
hidden secrets of Herculaneum some two years ago;
when the project aroused considerable interest through-
out Europe and America. Despite political opposition
to the scheme in Italy, where it seemed at first that
the attitude of the Italian government was one of un-
willingness to permit any other country to take part in
work of this character, the concession has practically
been obtained, and the work will doubtless be inaugu-
rated in the near future.
The excavation of Herculaneum will be a gigantic
enterprise, totally different, in regard to the amount of
labor necessary, from the excavation of Pompeii, which
was buried at the same time. As early as 1738 at-
tempts to excavate Herculaneum were made by King
Charles III. The work, which had hardly proceeded
further than the initial stages, was continued under
the direction of the Italian government in 1866. Since
that time practically no further progress has been
made. The work has always been attended with the
greatest difficulty, for the reason that the modern town
of Resina, with 20,000 inhabitants, is located over the
ruins of the ancient buried city, and, therefore, it has
usually been found necessary to abandon the research
work after a short period of excavation.
As Prof. Waldstein observed in his lecture at the
White House, in December, 1904, the difference in the
present status of the buried cities of Pompeii and
Herculaneum is due to the fact that the former was
covered to a depth of only about 15 feet, while Hercu-
laneum, on the other hand, in many places was buried
to a depth of 80 feet. Herculaneum, of distinctly Hel-
lenic foundation, was a far more representative home
of Greek art and literature than Pompeii, for the latter
was a purely commercial city. The slight excavation
which so far has been carried out at the site of Her-
culaneum has produced vast numbers of specimens of
art and literature, one villa alone yielding 1,750 papyri.
Some of the bronzes recovered are in a far more beauti-
ful state of preservation than the majority of those
from Pompeii. The latter city, though much influ-
enced by Hellenic culture, was never a real center of
Greek civilization, such as Herculaneum, and, doubt-
less, the excavation of the latter will bring forth price-
less treasures of the literature and art of antiquity.
Prize Competition for Scientific Research.
The Academy of Sciences of Copenhagen recently de-
cided to award the following prizes for research in
different branches of science: Astronomy — gold medal
of the academy and the sum of 400 crowns for the de-
tailed study of Faye's periodic comet, the observations
of the return of the comet to be made the basis of the
calculations during the period of 1873-1896. Communi-
cations are to be handed in before October 31, 1908.
Botany — Gold medal of the academy and the sum of
400 crowns. A sufficiently large selection is to be
made of the microscopic vegetable organisms which
are found in the sandy soil or mud on the Danish
coast. The research is to distinguish between the
specimens and determine which of them are of
native origin and which have been brought by the
sea or in any other way. A special prize of 800 crowns
is to be awarded for a research as to the method of
determining the proportion of dry substance and starch
contained in the potato. The method is to be a simple
and practical one, and give exact results. It is to be
based upon the careful and thorough examination of
the amounts of these substances in different specimens
under test. The experimenter is to study the degree
of precision with which it is possible to calculate these
proportions by determining the densities or by other
easily-applied methods, and he is to indicate the best
processes for taking samples and for the ulterior treat-
ment. The paper is to contain a critical account of
preceding work in the same field. It is to be handed
in before October 31, 1908. The above manuscripts
can be written in Danish, French,. Swedish, English,
German, or Latin, and are to be anonymous, accom-
panied by a sealed envelope with the name and ad-
dress. They should be sent to Prof. Zeuthon, secretary
of the academy, Copenhagen.
SAFETY CAN LIFTER.
In canning certain kinds of food, it is customary to
place the filled jars or cans in a kettle of water, and
place the latter on the fire. Then when the water has
come to a boil, the jars are sealed. The task of re-
moving the jars from the boiling water without scald-
ing the hands is rather difficult. To render this task
safer, Mrs. Emily A. Austin, of Bethel, Sullivan County,
N. Y., has invented the can lifter illustrated in the
accompanying drawing. The device is extremely sim-
ple, consisting merely of a base plate on which the can
rests, a standard, and hinged to the latter a bail, which
is adapted to be swung over the neck of the jar. The
standard consists of a pair of wire legs bent to form
an eye at the top, which serves as a handle, and a pair
of eyes at the sides, to form bearings for the bail. The
latter, which is of horseshoe shape, is formed with a
handle bent upward, so that by raising the handle the
bail can be swung up clear of the top of the can. In
this raised position it may be held by slipping the
handle over a hook at the top of the standard. In use
the base plate is passed under the jar or can, and the
handle is unhooked, permitting the bail to fall over
the neck of the jar. The jar may then be easily lifted
out of the kettle, and thereafter removed from the
holder by raising the bail. The entire operation is
performed without touching the jar with the hand.
SAFETY CAN LIFTER.
November 24, 1906.
BECENTLY PATENTED INVENTIONS.
Pertaining to Apparel.
TROUSERS-SUPPORT. — A. ML Taylor,
Port Ewen, N. Y. The object of the invention
is to provide a support which is easily manipu-
lated for placing the trousers in position on
the support or removing the same therefrom
and arranged to clamp the waistband of the
trousers in position, so that the trousers hang
naturally down from the support, to avoid fold-
ing and consequent undesirable doubling up
and creasing of the trousers.
GARMENT-HANGER.— E. T. Palmenberg,
N.ew York, N. Y. The inventor's object is to
provide a hanger designed for supporting one
or more garments, such as coats, skirts, and
the like, and arranged to securely hold the
supporting-bar in position on the hook and to
readily accommodate the velvet or other deli-
cate coat collar without danger of crushing
TROUSERS-BRACE AND STOCKING-SUP-
PORT. — J. T. Andrew, Montgomery, Ala. The
invention relates to improvements in combined
trousers-braces and stocking or sock support-
ers, the object being to provide a device of
this character that will prevent the trousers
from bagging at the knee and also to main-
tain the front crease of the trousers-legs for
a considerable length of time, thus preventing
VOLTAGE-REGULATOR. — T. M. Pusey,
Kennett Square, Pa. In the present invention
there is a tipping beam, controllable by the
action of a main solenoid and adapted to con-
trol the opening and closing of certain contacts
encircling the main solenoid are annular sole-
noids for preventing the solenoid core from
ELECTRIC , SIGNALING SYSTEM.— J. S.
Anderson, Ames, Neb. It may happen that a
portion of a track is displaced by landslide,
or a bridge turned, or one or more cross-ties
dislodged, or the track maliciously tampered
with. In these and all cases of a similar
kind by means of this invention warning is
given directly and automatically to the loco-
motive engineer as soon as the locomotive ap-
proaches within a suitable distance of the
part of the track thus affected.
Of Interest to Farmers.
SHEEP-HOOK.— E. W. Stauffer, Chinook,
Mont. This hook is very efficient and easily
operated without injury to the leg of the
sheep. Very light pressure is required to re-
lease the catch or to return it into an oper-
ative position. When in operative position, it
is impossible for the sheep to release itself.
It may be used with equal facility as a goose
or turkey-hook, in which case it should be
made of lighter material.
Of General Interest*
PEN-WIPER. — J. S. Stull, Jr., and C. P.
Berkes, Philadelphia, Pa. The device is par-
ticularly for use in wiping draftsmen's ruling
pens, the object being to provide one that will
be simple in construction and by means of
which the pen-points may be quickly and
thoroughly cleaned of ink at both the inner
and outer sides and more conveniently than
by employing the usual cloth.
COAL-WASHER AND ORE-CONCENTRAT-
OR.— A. C. Campbell, Asheville, N. C. The
object of the present invention is to provide a
washer and concentrator arranged to effective-
ly separate the more dense material from the
less and to insure a uniform distribution of
the material into the separating pan. It re-
lates to coal-washers and ore-concentrators
such as shown and described in the Letters
Patent of the U. S., formerly granted to Mr.
AUTOMATIC FIREARM.— J. J. Reifgraber,
St. Louis, Mo. The invention relates particu-
larly to that class of automatic firearms in
which the several operations— such as the un-
locking and opening of the breech after firing
a shot, the extracting and ejection of the
empty cartridge-shell, the cocking of the ham-
mer, the introduction of a fresh cartridge into
the firing-chamber, and the closing and locking
of the breech — are automatically effected by
the pressure of the gases generated by the
APPARATUS FOR DISTILLING TURPEN-
TINE. — J. G. Saunders, Lake Park, Ga. By
the operating means of this apparatus the hot
spirit of turpentine as it comes from the worm
of the still is cooled down to or even below
atmospheric temperature without exposure to
the air and without any loss by evaporation
or any swelling and subsequent leakage of the
CAMP-BED.— F. D. Rappelee, Green Bay,
Wis. The purpose of the invention is to pro-
vide an economic form of camp or field bed,
and to so construct the same that it can _be
compactly folded for storage and transporta-
tion, quickly set up for use, and so that all
parts will remain connected at all times.
PROPORTIONAL CALIPERS.— J. Prario,
Mount Hope, W. Va. The aim of the inventor
is to provide a means whereby any definite
relationship between the lengths of the oppo-
site legs may be secured at will and in which
there is no liability of this relationship being
accidentally varied or changed during the use
of the instrument on any one particular piece
of the work.
APPARATUS FOR HANDLING HIDES. —
B. A. McNabb, Lowell, Mass. The improve-
ment pertains to a means for handling hides
or skins, particularly those being treated for
so-called "patent-leather," and by means of
which the hides fastened to the boards in the
usual manner may be readily placed in proper
position in the drying oven, and when the
drying process is finished the hides may be
removed from the oven in far less time and
labor than by the ordinary methods of hand-
LAUNDRY-TAG.— F. F. Akerly and W.
Borchert, Reno, Nev. One purpose of this
invention is to provide a tag especially adapt-
ed for laundry use and which can be quickly
and conveniently applied to any article to be
laundered and which will remain on the article
until purposely removed, the removal being very
readily accomplished. It can be applied by
hand or machine, and will not rust a garment.
ANCHOR. — F. B. Langston, Brooklyn, N.
Y. The invention has for its purpose anchor-
ing devices in which the seizing device is sunk,
owing to the fact that the ground is softened
or loosened beneath it by fluid under pressure
in such a manner that the seizing device is
able to sink into the subsoil owing to its- own
EXTENSION BRACE-BAR.— J. W. Komi-
nek, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. In this patent the
invention refers to improvements in brace-bars
particularly adapted for use in supporting
theatrical stage-wings or. the like, the object
being to provide a brace that may be. readily
adjusted as to length and firmly held when
ISHING-MACHINES.— I. L. Pomeroy, Lock-
port, N. Y. The principal objects of the de-
vice are to provide for the universal adjust-
ment of the holder, so that it can be applied
to any kind of work and so that the work
may be manipulated in any desired manner
to secure the desired polishing action without
introducing any necessity for moving the pol-
ishing-wheel itself, except the ordinary rota-
tion of the same upon the axis. The means
provided saves a large percentage in the cost
of labor in these, operations.
SAWMILL. — J. H. IIOwser, Dawsonville,
Ga. The principal objects of the inventor are
to provide for automatically reversing a re-
ciprocating carriage at each end of its stroke,
so connected with other operating parts that
the reversing means will not interfere with the
operation of a hand-operated means for stop-
ping and reversing the carriage, and also per-
mitting a saw when used in a sawmill to ro-
tate continuously and to be driven from the
same source of power as the means for driv-
ing the carriage.
MACHINE FOR DECORTICATING RAMIE
AND OTHER FIBROUS PLANTS— J. M. A.
Faitre, 21 Place du Champ de F'oire, Limoges,
Haute-Vienne, France. The invention consists
of a finishing-cleaner adapted to operate in an
automatic and continuous manner and so con-
structed as to effect in succession the intro-
duction of the previously-disintegrated textile
materials between a pair of cleaning scraper-
cylinders and their subsequent submission to a
drawing action in a direction opposed to that
in which the cylinders tend to draw the mate-
rials, such action continuing until the stems,
etc., are entirely disengaged from the cylin-
WOODWORKING-MACHINE.— E. S. Berry,
Putnanrvillc, Vt. The machine operates upon
Wood and similar materials, and while capable
of general use is especially adapted to making
blanks from which clothes-pins are to be made.
The principal objects are to provide means for
feeding and holding the blanks for grooving
opposite surfaces thereof and for beveling the
WRENCH.— A. Lovell, East St. Louis, 111.
The invention has reference particularly to the
type commonly termed "pipe-wrenches." The
principal object is the provision of a simple
and durable implement the jaws of which may
be drawn toward and separated from one an-
other to set them upon the work by a force
applied to and tending to revolve the handle
about the work.
LOCK. — O. Katzenberger, San Antonio,
Texas. The lock belongs to the padlocks of
the keyless combination type, and the invent-
or's aim Is the provision of a lock of this
character that will be simple in construction,
having no parts liable to get out of order, and
that may be opened only by a person knowing
NUT-LOCK.-W. S. Mason, La Salle, 111. Prlme M ° Vers and Tl,elr Accessories.
Mr. Mason's improvements are applicable to MULTIPLE-CYLINDER ROTARY EXPLO-
either square, hexagonal, or octagonal nuts SIVE-ENGINE.— B. F. Walker, Bridgeport,
and are effective in locking the nut in position Conn. The prime objects of the improvement
TYPE SETTING AND DISTRIBUTING MA-
CHINE.— A. G. Baker, Albion, Mich. In this
instance the invention relates to a machine
for setting individual type under the control
of a keyboard and for automatically distribut-
ing the type into various compartments or
cases provided therefor, the machine being
capable of performing the operations of set-
ting and distributing either simultaneously or
on the bolt without requiring any extra turn-
ing of the nut in either direction. They are
also applicable for intended purposes irres-
pective of the particular number of turns re-
quired to be made of the nuts upon the bolt
in order to bring the transverse holes in the
bolt and the case in proper registry to receive
Heating and Lighting.
AUTOMATIC-LIGHTING BURNER. — H.
Lyon, Oneonta, N. Y. The aim of this in-
ventor is to provide simple and improved means
for automatically lighting a burner, such as
a gas-burner. The invention is applicable to
gas, gasolene, or petroleum burners of all
kinds used for lighting purposes and seems
especially useful in connection with gas-burn-
ers for illuminating purposes.
DRAFT DEVICE FOR FURNACES'. — W. G.
McPherson, Portland, Ore. Special means
are employed by which air may be introduced
to the fuel on the bottom of the fire-box of a
furnace at numerous places throughout the
mass of the fuel rather than at those por-
tions only thereof lying at the front of the
furnace. Such means may be constructed sep-
arately from or as an integral part of the
furnace and may be renewed or replaced from
time to time, no dismantling or separation of
other portions of the furnace being necessary
for enabling this to be done.
CAKE-TRIMMER.— J. B. Winfkee, Jr.,
Lynchburg, Va. The device is chiefly applica-
ble and useful ' for trimming the edges of
layer-cakes, which it expeditiously effects with
economy of material without breaking away
any portion save that which is eccentric or too
rough. It is very difficult to cut the edges of
such cakes while hot, but this invention per-
forms the operation in such a manner that the
cakes are left in the best practical form.
machines and Mechanical Devices.
DECAPPING, RECAPPING, AND SIZING
MACHINE.— D. E. Swaysgood, Mark Center,
Ohio. The invention relates to cartridges ; and
its object is to provide a machine arranged to
permit convenient decapping and recapping of
the shells and accurate sizing thereof. The
shell is first decapped, then resized, and finally
recapped before leaving the machine, and it is
not necessary to handle the shell a number of
times for performing the several operations.
UNIVERSAL WORK-HOLDER FOR POL-
are to attain, first, several expansion-strokes
from each cylinder at every revolution of the
engine, thereby giving greatly-increased power
with light weight and small area ; second, di-
rect thrust with no lateral strain on the pis-
ton and cylinder ; third, dispensing with
crank ; fourth, a means for mechanically open-
ing the inlet and exhaust valves ; fifth, devices
for automatically reversing the engine.
ROTARY EXPLOSIVE - ENGINE. — B. F.
Walker, Bridgeport, Conn. In its present
form the invention comprises a stationary
cammed member of circular undulating form,
this member sustaining revolubly a central
shaft with a cylinder or cylinders, which turn
with a shaft and which have their pistons con-
nected with a part running in or against the
cammed part, so that by the reaction .of the
piston movement on the cam a continuous ro-
tary movement is imparted. It relates to a
specific form covered, broadly, in a copending
application for engines formerly filed by Mr.
GOVERNOR.— A. C. Campbell, Asheville,
N. C. The invention relates to devices for
regulating the speed of engines, motors, and
other machinery ; and its object is to provide
a new and improved governor, more especially
designed to subject the source of power to
such automatic restraint as to check any ten-
dency to variability of the speed of the mo-
tor, the governor being exceedingly sensitive,
and positive in its action.
STEAM-BOILER.— C. E. Chapman, Fort
Edward, N. Y. The inventor provides a quick-
steaming purely coil-boiler in which cojls are
continuous from around the firebox throughout
the body and header in the dome from which
live steam is taken, the water being forced un-
der pressure in the fire-box coils, passing in
vapor to the body-coils, the vapor entering
headers of the series of body-coils farthest
from the fire-box and then entering headers
of next series at a point close to the fire-box,
so that the vapor travels from any series to
the other in the direction of the fire-box and
contrary to direction of travel of products of
REGULATOR. — E. A. Beyer, Marquette,
Mich. The regulator is adapted to be applied
to governors, valves, and other spring-actuated
parts by means of which the set of the gover-
nor or valve under the spring may be regulated,
at will, for instance, if the invention is ap-
plied to an air-brake governor the spring of.
which is set at a certain pressure. Said ad-
justment of the spring may be temporarily
changed by the device, so as to bring about
operation at another pressure or pressures.
Railways and Their Accessories.
SIGNAL.— C. P. Ruggles, Texarkana, Texas.
The object of the present invention is the pro-
vision of a flag holder or staff which will nor-
mally conceal a plurality of flags or similar
signals of different colors or significance, ar-
rangement being made for bringing any one of
these flags into view when desired.
TIE-BAR. — J. F. McKechnie, Eleele, Ha-
waii. In this case the invention relates to
railway-tracks; and its object is to provide a
new and improved tie-bar for connecting the
rails with each other with a view to prevent
spreading of the rails, especially at curves, and
to relieve the sleepers of undue strain.
SWITCH-ROPE COUPLING.— D. F. Knapp,
Portland, Ore. The purpose here is to provide
a device which can be coupled to an auto-
matic coupler-bar by removing the knuckle and
using the same knuckle-pin that holds the
knuckle in place, and which will also be
adapted for application to the arch-bar of a
truck to slue the truck around in line with the
track. To this end the coupler has a body
portion and is provided at one end with a link
to which the switch-rope may be secured.
RAILWAY-CAR.— C. M. Funk, Centralia,
Wash. This invention is an improvement in
railway-cars, and especially in cars designed
for carrying logs or other heavy timber or com-
modity which it is desired to bind upon the
car. By extending the binders under the load
at the sides of the car the tendency is to bind
the car together instead of spreading it.
SIGNAL.— C. R. Dowler, Lamar, Col. This
"automatic danger-signal" is designed for loca-
tion near the approach of a railway-bridge at
places along railway trackage and on public
roads where through action of high water the
bridge may be washed away or rendered unsafe
and places along the track or roadway made
dangerous by washouts, land-slides, or due to
other impediment to travel.
CIRCUIT- BREAKING DEVICE.— C. R.
Dowler, Lamar, Col. This invention may be
generically stated as comprehending an electric
circuit along railway-tracks, suitable signal
devices, and means in the circuit for breaking
same, the circuit-breaking devices being adapted
for automatic operation, through action of pe-
culiar means, upon undermining action or
washout of the roadbed embankment or from
spreading of the rails.
TORPEDO-PLACER.— W. D. Jackson, Esca-
naba, Mich. The object of this inventor is to
provide a device for placing alarm-torpedoes
on a railway-rail by means of which a person
on a rear platform of a moving train may
readily place a torpedo in position to be ex-
ploded by an approaching train, and thus give
signal as to a train ahead.
F'REIGHT-CAR.— W. I. Brock, Erie, Pa. In
the present patent the invention pertains to
freight-cars; and the object is the provision
of a car capable of transporting liquid or solid
material and which shall be strong in construc-
tion, durable in use, and adapted to be freely
and quickly loaded and unloaded.
Pertaining to Recreation.
AMUSEMENT DEVICE.— O. Henrichsen,
New York, N. Y. One purpose of this im-
provement is to provide a device which will
represent a miniature race-course and horses,
automobiles, bicycles, or men racing thereon,
and, further, to so construct the device that
the objects will be capable of independent ac-
tion and so that the speed of the objects will
be under complete control of the operators,
since the game can be played by one or more
Pertaining to Vehicles.
AUTOMATIC BACK-STOP FOR VEHICLES.
— C. A. Noble, Catskill, N. Y. The invention
relates to automobiles and other vehicles, and
more particularly to the means employed for
preventing the vehicle ascending a hill from
running backward in case the power is shut
off. The object is to provide a back-stop for
vehicles arranged to automatically stop the ve-
hicle on a slope to prevent it from running
backward down the same and previous to ob-
taining any momentum.
DESIGN FOR A GAS-STOVE.— C. Schaefer,
Cambridge City, Ind. The designer has pro-
duced #n ornamental gas-stove. The body is
round and tapers down sharply from the top
and sets on a sloping circular base on four
feet. Body and base when they meet are en-
circled with a band giving a wasp-like waist
effect. A shade surmounts the upper part of
the body and a wire woven pendent is suspend-
DESIGN FOR A GAME-BOARD.— L. Hud-
gin, Nogales, Ariz. Ter. The board is laid out
in 255 squares. At intervals there are six
patches of ambush trees. At the top of the
board, there are opposite alternate rows of
square tunnel holes in the hills that make up
the landscape of lake and valleys beyond.
A railway track with switch is at the bottom
of the board.
Note.— Copies of any of these patents will
be furnished by Munn & Co. for ten cents each.
Please state the name of the patentee, title of
the invention, and date of this paper.
November 24, 1906.
Business and Personal Wants.
READ THIS COLUMN CAREFULLY,— You will
find inquiries for certain classes of articles numbered
in consecutive order. If you manufacture these goods
write us at once and we will send you the name and
address of the party desiring the information. In
every case it is necessary to give the
number of the inquiry.
MCNN & CO.
Marine Iron Works. Chicago. Catalogue free.
Inquiry No. 848(1.— Wanted, address of a manu-
facturer of a machine for making wooden meat skew-
For hoisting engines. J. S. Mundy, Newark, N. J.
Inquiry No. 8481.— Wanted, manufacturers of
elastic bands for hose supporters.
*' U. S." Metal Polish. Indianapolis. Samples free.
Inquiry No. 8482.— Wanted, manufacturers of
portable lire-wood saws.
Handle & Spoke Mchy. Ober Mfg_ Co , 10 Bell St.,
Chagrin Falls, O.
inquiry No. 8483.— Wanted, the addresses of the
Birkeland E. Y. de Process, also the apparatus for the
artificial production of nitrates.
Sawmill machinery and outfits manufactured by the
Lane Mfg. Co., Box 13, Montpelier, Vt.
Inquiry No. 848 I.— Wanted, machinery for card-
ing, spinning and making twine, rnpe and plaited cord,
from cotton, mohair and Angora goat hair.
I sell patents. To buy, or having one to sell, write
Chas. A. Scott, 719 Mutual Life Building, Buffalo, N. Y.
Inquiry No. 8485.— Wanted, rotary engine for oil
Headquarters for new and slightly used machinery.
Liberty Machinery Mart, 138 Liberty Street, New York.
Inquiry P¥o. 8486. --Wanted, makers of type-
Metal Novelty Works Co., manufacturers of all kinds
of light Metal Goods, Dies and Metal Stampings our
Specialty. 43-47 S. Canal Street, Chicago.
Inquiry No. 8487.— Wanted, manufacturers of
devices controlling valves by electricity.
The celebrated " Hornsby-Akroyd " safety oil engine.
Koerting gas engine and producer. Ice machines. Built
by De La Vergne Mch. Co., Ft. E. 138th St. N. Y. C.
Inquiry No. 84S8.— Wanted, machines for grind-
ing graphite and pulverizing minerals.
Manufacturers of patent articles, dies, metal
st imping, screw machine work, hardware specialties,
machine work and special Bize washers. Quadriga
Manufacturing Company, 18 South Canal St., Chicago.
Inquiry No. 8489.— Wanted, second-hand drop
Inquiry No. 8490.— Wanted, manufacturers of
electrical heating appliances.
Inquiry No. 8491.— Wanted, a power punch about
20 inches to 24 inches throat and punch a % inch hole in
U> inch iron, new or second hand.
Inquiry No. 8492.— Wanted, manufacturers of
Inquiry No. 8493.— Wanted, a mill for shredding
and grinding alfalfa hay into ground feed.
HINTS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
Names and Address must accompany all letters or
no attention will be paid thereto. This is for
our information and not for publication.
References to former articles or answers should give
date of paper and page or number of question.
Inquiries not answered in reasonable time should be
repeated; correspondents will bear in mind that
some answers require not a little research, and,
though we endeavor to reply to all either by
letter or in this department, each must take
Buyers wishing to purchase any article not adver-
tised in our columns will be furnished with
addresses of houses manufacturing or carrying
Special Written Information on matters of personal
rather than general interest cannot be expected 1
Scientific American Supplements referred to may be
had at the office. Price 10 cents each.
Books referred to promptly supplied on receipt of
Minerals sent for examination should be distinctly
marked or labeled.
(10221) A. H. asks: Please describe
how salammoniac is obtained or produced. A.
Salammoniac is prepared from the ammonia
water of the gas works, by the addition of hy-
(10222) E. B. S. writes: I have a dy-
namo that gives 25 volts and will light two
T(J-eandle-power lights. Must the light be rated
at 25 or will it light two 110-voIt lamps and
how many one-candle-power lamps of 100 volts
will it light? A. Your dynamo, rated at 25
volts, will do anything which a pressure of 25
volts will do. but it cannot do work requiring
100 volts. It cannot light any 110-volt lamps.
The lamps for this dynamo must be 25-volt
(10223) E. L. S. asks: What is the
voltage of the hand-power dynamo in "Experi-
mental Science" when wound as directed with
No. 16 wire on fields and No. 18 armature?
What sizes of wire should be used to give an
E.M.F. of 25 volts? About how much wire will
be required in each case? A. The hand-power
dynamo gives about 3 amperes at 12 volts. The
voltage would be doubled by doubling the num-
ber of turns on the field. For the field as de-
signed, about 5% pounds of No. 16 B. & S.
wire are required, and for the armature about
% pound No. 18 is required.
(10224) J. W. J. asks: Have you
plans in any of your Supplements of a dy-
namo that will charge storage battery described
in Supplement No. 119 5? If so, state what
number or numbers? A. The dynamo described
in Supplement No. 600, price ten cents, will
charge the storage battery of Supplement
(10225) A. W. P. asks: L I am build-
ing a 10-inch spark coil, and wish to insulate
it with some kind of oil. I have allowed an
inch space between primary and secondary, in
addition to a thin fiber tube enveloping the
primary. I have tested linseed oil (boiled) and
kerosene, finding the latter a somewhat better
insulator ; but the odor is more objectionable.
Can you advise me on the subject? A. Any
heavy petroleum oil is a good insulator for a
coil immersed in it. We do not know how to
get rid of the odor of any oil. If inclosed in
a tight box the odor will not be perceived very
much in the room. 2. I have seen several ac-
counts of Roentgen rays producing acute der-
matitis and causing the hair to fall out. Will
you please explain to what extent this danger
exists, and what means, if any, may be taken
to prevent its occurrence? A. The danger of
producing X-ray burns is very imminent if the
operator is inexperienced or the tube is not
properly shielded. The best mode of avoiding
these burns is to have an apparatus which
will do its work so quickly as to not produce
them. It is. however, prudent to cover the
patient in the parts exposed to the rays with
a piece of aluminium foil which is grounded
to a gas or water pipe or has a wire carried
to earth. 3. In an interrupter where the cir-
cuit is quickly broken under water, is it neces-
sary that the contacts be made of platinum?
A. The same heat is produced in breaking a
certain current under any circumstances. If
water is interposed the heat is carried away
more readily, but the spark and heat of the
break is able to burn the wire, and platinum
should be used for the terminals.
(10226) J. E. P. asks: 1. In substi-
tuting a button to throw the drop at the cen-
tral telephone station, how many Mesco dry
cells will be required instead of the magneto-
electric machine usually used in small towns?
A. This depends upon the distance from the
central, and the number of telephones in series
if the line is a party line. It may be that a
small number will do the work. Experiment is
the solution probably in this case. 2. What
cells would you consider preferable for this
charge? A. There are a number of dry cells
differing but little from each other. We have
no recommendation to give to one of these over
(10227) G. S. T. writes: Will you
kindly give me your opinion of the following
statement made here to-day : That a cube of
iron one inch square, being dropped overboard
at the greatest known depth of the ocean,
would not sink to the bottom, but that there
is a depth where it would be held in suspense.
A. The cube will drop to the bottom of the
ocean at the greatest depths. Anything that
is heavier or has a greater specific gravity than
salt water sinks to the bottom at all depths.
The compressibility of sea water is only about
0.000044 of its bulk per atmosphere of pres-
sure and not materially denser at great depths ;
thus at a depth of a mile its density would be
only about 1-130 greater than at the surface.
Sand and mud sink to the bottom of the
ocean at great depths, and shells are dredged
from the deepest seas.
(10228) C. R. M. asks: I want to get
the table for carrying capacity of copper wire
and German silver wire. I have seen tables j
run as fine as 26 B. & S. gage, but not any
finer. I would like to get a table or a way to
figure for finer wire if possible. V also would
like something on the size of wire to use on
motors and dynamos. A. A finer wire than No.
18 has no carrying capacity, since its use is not
allowed by the fire underwriters for wiring
buildings. The wires in dynamos and motors
are selected on the basis of 2,000 to 3,000 am-
peres per square inch of cross section in ring
armatures, and even 4,000 amperes in drum ar-
matures. In magnet coils only about 2,000 am-
peres per square inch is allowed.
(10229) A. L. S. asks: t Ira the en-
gineering notes of your paper for September
28, 1901, there is a paragraph on obtaining
oxygen from the air, stating that it can be
mixed with water gas for lighting. Is not this
an explosive mixture? A. A mixture of oxygen
from the air and street gas is explosive in cer-
tain proportions; but in the burning of these
in a jet the fire cannot get at the mixed gases
till they are ready to be burned, as in the
calcium light jet. 2. Also, will you kindly give
the principle of the Nernst lamp? A. The
Nernst lamp employs a thread of a substance
like that used in the Welsbach mantle. This,
heated to a white heat, gives out light.
(10230) J. N. P. asks: Kindly furnish
me with explicit definition of the term "equiva-
lent focus," as applied to a compound photo-
graphic lens. Give one or more rules, as free
from mathematics as may be, for accurately
determining the equivalent focus of such a lens.
Is the relation of diaphragm aperture to focal
length of a lens based upon the actual or
equivalent focus? How can we determine the
diameter of the circle of illumination of a lens
upon which its covering power is dependent,
since this dimension varies with the distance
between lens and ground glass? A. The equiv-
alent focus of a photographic combination is
"the focal length of the single lens which will
produce the same sized image." This focus
is measured from the optical center of the
lens. It is not the "back" focus. Several
methods are given for measuring the equivalent
focus in Taylor's "Optics Of Photography,"
price $1 by mail,
(10231) C. E. D. writes: It seems
to me that you have not j*et gotten at the
gist of my query. I did not assert that the
ice would not freeze to the cold spoon, but
that it froze to the hot spoon in less time, as
has been observed, not only by myself, but by
many others under the conditions described by
me. My two objects in writing were to bring
before your readers a pleasant and simple
cooling confection, very cheap, and also to find
out why less time was required in connection
with the hot piece of metal than if a cold
piece was used. It is my belief that a hot
spoon shapes the ice and thus gives a better
contact and when lifted brings with it more
ice than the cold one. This would seem to me
to be the proper solution, but it does not alter
the fact that of the two spoons introduced at
the same moment, the hot one will have the
more ice clinging to it when withdrawn. If
you did not find this phenomenon, then you
have not carried out the experiment as I have
regularly done. A. In the question under con-
sideration, the action of chipped ice and sugar
mixed upon a hot and a cold spoon, we did
not intend to misrepresent your position in the
former letter. We quote : "The ice ought to
be just as cold and just as liable to attach to
the cold spoon as to the hot one — in fact,
more so ; but it does not do it." This cer-
tainly seems to us to say that the ice does
not freeze to the cold spoon. As you now say
you did not intend it so, we do not insist on
the point. It is clear that nothing can freeze
to ice till that thing is cooled to the freezing
point. It is also clear to us that the ice
which is attached to the hot spoon is not
frozen to the spoon but simply sticks to it.
We note that you now do not say "freeze" to
the hot spoon, as you did in former letters,
but "the hot one will have the more ice cling-
ing to it when withdrawn." This is quite true,
as we observed, but since this clinging ice was
not frozen to the spoon at all we paid no at-
tention to it. It simply clung to the spoon by
surface tension and capillarity. That was all
there was to that. We froze pieces of ice to
the cold spoon and to the hot one after it had
cooled. The hot spoon, as you say, melts the
pieces of ice into better contact and so they
adhere to it more closely when it cools. We
must confess we do not see any mystery or
puzzle in the action. There are many in-
stances in which ice freezes to the object with
which it is in contact, if only a thin film, or
pellicle of water can come between them. If
no film of water can be formed between the
two surfaces no freezing will take place.
Lumps of dry ice in a place below freezing
will not freeze together, unless pressure is ex-
erted to bring them together.
( 10232 ) A. 0. asks : Can you fur-
nish drawings and directions for building a
small generator for charging storage battery
cells, such as are used on automobiles? Have
you a revised edition of "Experimental Sci-
ence" ? I have a copy of the 1890 edition.
Would like to know where I can buy storage
battery plates, etc. — something up to date.
A. Our Supplement No. 600, price ten cents,
gives plans for a dynamo giving 50 volts and
about 10 amperes. This would charge twenty
cells in series. If you have any such number
of cells to be charged this would answer very
well for the work. With a smaller number a
rheostat may be used to take up the excess of
voltage, and so any number of cells in reality
may be charged up to twenty, the capacity of
the machine. We have not the plans for a
machine especially designed for charging bat-
NEW BOOKS, ETC.
Three Men in a Motor Car. By Win-
throp E. Scarritt. New York: E. P.
Dutton & Co., 1906. 8vo.; 267 pp.;
This is an interesting and instructive little
volume by the foremost apostle of the auto-
mobile in America. Mr. Scarritt has owned
and operated more than twenty different makes
of cars in the past six years, and his descrip-
tion of his first machine, contrasted with the
auto of to-day, shows vividly what progress
has been made. The book deals mainly with
a trip around Europe in a modern motor car.
Not only is it full of descriptions of scenery
and the writer's impressions, but it gives much
practical advice upon touring and the transport
of a car to Europe and back. W!:^ en route
and stopping at the best hotels, the three men
found that it cost th::n $12 per capita per
day, all expenses included. A good chauffeur
can be hired for $5 a day, for which he will
board himself. The book concludes with chap-
ters on early American automobiles and auto-
mobile races, and a prophecy of what is to be
the future of the automobile in this country.
INDEX OF INVENTIONS
For which Letters Patent of the
United States were Issued
for the Week Ending
November 13, 1906,
AND EACH BEARING THAT DATE
fSeenoteatend of list about copies of these patents.
Acetates, making, H. O. Chute 835,501
Aerophone, L. De Forest 836,015, 836,072
Air-moistening device, A. Leverle 835,542
Air tension motor, G. P. Braud 835,774
Alkaline bicarbonates, manufacturing, J. G.
Alloy of iron and hydrogen and producing
the same, article of, A. Bontempi 835,495
Amusement apparatus, C. F. Ritchel 835,638
Animal trap, H. F. Harfst 835,521
Animal trap, M. J. E. Thorer 835,874
Annunciator, train, E. A. Everett 835,605
Arch, reinforced terra cotta, J. Comer-ma. . 835,663
Ash pan and adjustable hopper for the
same, collapsible, E. A. Bagby 836,002
Assorting apparatus, F. F. Backstrom 835,805
Atomizer, A. C. Eggers 835,882
Automobile frame, A. B. Morse 835,547
Bags, means to facilitate the opening of,
W. L. Fross 835,673
Baling press, M. C. Nixon 835,632
Baling press, H. A. Starr 835,646
Bandage, finger, B. A. Paroubek 835,980
Barometer, W. C. Plank 835,983
Bearing, spring neck, P. T. Sundberg 835,739
Bearing, thrust, G. E. Franquist 835,853
Bed, folding, J. A. Dewey 835,817
Beet topper, B. L. Chambers 835,600
Bellows, J. T. Hill 835,617
Bicycle, Hornecker & Blankenheim 836,040
Billiard cue, J. Adorjan 835,489
Billiard cue tip, F. W. Schroeder 835,736
Block. See Building block.
Boat, J. N. Huff 835,530
Boat, life, O. Brude 835,498
Boiler flue expander attachment, D. M. &
A. C. Remson 835,556
Book leaf or the like, flexible, G. Higginson 835,887
Bookcase, sectional, Faust & Brolin,
Bookcase support, sectional, F. W. Tobey . . 835,582
Bottle, anti-reflllable, F. Margert 835,862
Bottle attachment, W. D. Chappelle 836,013
Bottle attachment, C. L. P. Handy 836,033
Bottle cleaning and rinsing apparatus, A.
A. Pindstofte 835,866
Bottle closure, valved, A. II. Lewis 835,706
Bottle, Ink or mucilage, J. C. W. Miller.. 835,972
Bottle, mucilage, R. E. Kuter 835,955
Bottle, non-refillable, H. J. Mortensen 835,548
Bottle, non-refillable, G. B. M. Pike 835,553
Bottle, non-refillable, B. Sharp 835,643
Bottle, non-refillable, A. C. Way 835,995
Bottle, non-rofillable^Behrmann & Rodefeld 836,005
Bottle or other receptacle stopper, L. Gan-
ueci-Cancellieri et al 835,822
Bottle stopper, Davis & Stetson 835,783
Bottle stopper holding device, W. R. Briggs 835,497
Bowling alley, E. Powers 835,554
Box opening device, G. C. Weber 835,649
Brick machine, S. S. Gardiner 835,674
Bricks, stone, and artificialtone, treating,
T. D. Ball 835,742
Briquet molding machines, Simmons & Gar-
Bronzing and dust-removing machine, com-
bined, M. Fritsche 835,883
Brooder, chicken, C. F. Snover 835,871
Broom holder, F. H. Bollman 835,725
Brush holder, tooth, W. E. Lawrence 835,732
Brush, tooth, C. D. Miller 835,709
Bucket, clam-shell. W. B. Skinkle 835,567
Buckle clip, E. F. Gingras 835,752
Building block, M. Eckley 835,669
Building block, J. A. Douglass 836,017
Building construction material, G. F. Thorn 835,717
Butter fat from cream or milk, extracting,
G. W. Renyx 835,890
Can and other vessel, W. J. & G. A. Stew-
Capping device, automatic self heating, W.
F. Hebrank 835,614
Car bolster, H. M. Pflager et al 835,552
Car coupling, F. Schatzka 835,560
Car coupling, J. & J. O. Timms 835,581
Car draft gear, railway, J. Lange, Jr 835,540
Car fender, K. M. Stahl 835,571
Car, hand, G. E. Lunceford 835,965
Car, railway, Howard & Pflager 835,527
Car, railway, C. H. Howard 835,52s
Car, railway, L. J. Harris 835,905
Car, sleeping, D. S. McEwing 835,799
Car stake and strap appliance, flat, A. S.
Car stanchion, adjustable, W. K. Cleveland 835,881
Cars, sand delivery box for railway, J.
Roediger 835,91 7
Carbureter, A. Clement 835,880
Carbureting air and other gases, automatic
apparatus for. E, Bouchaud-Praceiq. . . 835,745
Carousel, H. H. Pattee 835,864
Carrier, A. P. Boyer 835,780
Cart, dump, L. H. Young 835,999
Cast-off hook, R. F. Bartel 836,004
Caster, C. A. Baker 835,492
Casting machine, rotary, A. Schiepe 836,053
Cattle guard, Johnson & Pinckney 835,953
Centering construction, A. L. A. Himmel-
Chair, J. L. Newell 835,976
Chest, tool, E. V. Hill 835,616
Chimney, H. T. Keltie 835,792
Chimney cap, E. J. Cochran 836,014
Chopper. See Cotton chopper.
Churn, L. Soseman 835,568
Churn, A. L. Blalock 835,846
Churn dasher, E. A. Franklin 835,672
Cigar cutter, double, J. L. Obermayer 835,912
Cigar tip cutter, Hiering & Fuller 836,037
Circuit, alternating current pole changer,
E. H. Smythe 835,870
Clamp, A. F. Bramhall 835,809
Clevis, slip, W. M. Deming 835,666
Clock, electric, P. G. Giroud 835,516
Clothes drier, P. Foy 835,671
Clothes line hook, E. Miller 835,971
Clothes pin, C. J. Ingersoll 835,757
Clutch, Winton & Anderson 835.721
Clutch mechanism, A. C. Hendricks 836,035
Coke drawing machine, Cooney & Mitchell. 835,811
Collar, fold, J. M. Beiermeister 835,594
Color spraying apparatus, H. Mikorey 835,888
Color spraying device with Interchangeable
color receptacle, hand operated, H.
Column cap, J. R. Gray 835,884
Column for building construction, G. F.
Compass, mariner's, F. A. Strassweg 835,840
Concrete covering for structural members,
reinforced, R. Anderson 835,723
Concrete, tension member for reinforced,
J. Kahn 835,758
Concrete wall, Little & Gavett 835,827
Concrete wall construction, E. F. Wieder-
Concrete work, temporary framing for use
in, R. Anderson 835,724
Conveyer, bucket. R. Martin 835,798
Conveyer, grain drill, F. C. Collins 835,810
Conveying materials, apparatus for, H.
Cooking utensil, A. M. Andersen 835,876
Cooking utensils, mantle or jacket for, G.
Copying machine, R. Sehweers 835.561
Corn -husking machine, N. Malone 835.707
Cotton chopper, A. II. Council 835,664
Cotton linters, float drive for, J. w. Kim-
Cotton picker, R. W. Ivy 835,949
Cotton press, H. A. Baker 835,897
Couch and bed. convertible, L. Williams. . 835.770
Counter seat, T. Truax 835,992
Coupling pocket, W. E. Coffin S35.726
Crate, C. W. Stevens 835,921
Crate, H. L. & IT. Brockschmidt 835,932
Crate, collapsible, J. G. Penrod 835,733
Crate, egg, R. K. Gregory S30.029
Crib, G. E. Easley 835,819
Cuff holder, F. W. Barrett 835,593
Cultivator attachment, L. R. Greer 835,076
Cultivator replanting attachment, T. C.
Cultivator, riding, E. Stevenson 835,572
Chrtain fixture, H. M. Sturgis 835,570
Cut-out, R. A. Baldwin 835.493
Damper, N. Pruitt 835,915
Dental tool, J. E. Argue 836,001
Dental trial plates, instrument for soften-
ing, J. Miller 835,628
Detinning, Goldschmidt & Weber. 836,028
Diamond sawing machine, W. Loesser 8.35,964
Die press, G. Goldman 835,753
Disk drill, J. M, Pierce ,,,.,,, 836,051
November 24, 1906.
FOR FINE, ACCURATE WORK
Send for Catalogue B.
SENECA FALLS IHFQ. CO.
695 (Vater Street,
Seneca Falls, N.Y., U.S.A.
Engine and Foot Lathes
MACHINE SHOP OUTFITS, TOOLS AND
SUPPLIES. BEST MATERIALS. BEST
WORKMANSHIP. CATALOGUE FREE
SEBASTIAN LATHE CO.. 120 Culvert St., Cincinnati. 0.
MOTOR THATjS A MOTOR
For household use, dentists, jewelers, etc. Any kind of
chuck can be screwtd on the spindle ends. Polisher on
one side, grinder on the other. The A. ROSENBERG
FAUCET MOTOR runs in the right direction tor polish-
ing and grinding. 5 inches in diameter, 4J^ inch wheel.
No wrench or other tool needed to take wheels or chucks
off. Price of motor $5. Right and left-hand chucks I'oc.
each. Interchangeable bearings 2Sc. each. Send 10c, for
booklet. Agents wanted. (Established 1894.)
A. Ro SENDERS
THE A. ROSENBERG MOTOR AND MFG. CO.
Baltimore, Md., V. S. A.
ROTARY PUMPS AND ENGINES.
Their Origin and Development.— An important series of
papers giving a historical resume oi' the rotary pump
and engine from 1588 and illustrated with clear draw-
ings showing the construction of various forms of
pumps and engines. 38 illustrations. Contained in
Supplements 1109, 1110, 1111. Price 10 cents
each. For sale by Munn & Co. and all newsdealers.
For $1.75 we will send by express (not prepaid),
complete N. D. Outfit with full instruc-
tions for learning
A fascinating study
that will enable you
to earn good wages
Send for our catalog.
**" l llmnH— M^^p Established 1879.
Bunnell & Co.. Inc. 20 Park Place, New York
10 to 50-inch Swing
Send for J>riU Catalogue.
W. F. & JN0. BARNES CO.
1999 Ruby St., Rocktord, III.
The Kickdrive Circular Saw
Is a simple power for light work ot the
kindsmostdone by carpenters, cabinet, box,
pattern and picture-frame makers, and wood
workers generally, besides engravers and
electrotypers. This Machine has a strong,
solid iron frame and steel shaft; is thoroughly
well-built and suitable for various kinds of
work, as ripping, cross-cutting, grooving,
etc. Can be operated sitting or standing. We
also make all kinds of foot power devices.
310-313 Canal St., New Tork.
Model Electric Railways
Motors and Dynamos,
Send for Catalogue B. Perfect Working Models.
The Carlisle & Finch Co.. 233 East Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, 0.
A 25-Watt Dynamo $5.00
Wrought-iron fields, rocking brush
holder, compound winding giving
steady voltage. Can be used as
either shunt, series or compound.
Runs equally well as a motor.
First-class in every way. Send for one.
E. Q. WILLIAMS
5S8 S. Clinton St., Syracuse, N. T.
A Homemade 100=Mile
Wireless Telegraph Set
Read Scientific American Supplement 1615 for a
thorough, clear description, by A. Frederick Collins, of
the construction of a 100-mile wireless telegraph outfit.
Numerous, adequate diagrams accompany the text.
Price 10 cents by mail. Order from your newsdealer, or
MUNN & CO., 301 Broadway, New York
Keystone Well Drills
for Artesian and Ordinary Water
Wells; Mineral Prospecting and
Placer Testing for Dredgers ;
Deep Drilling for Oil and Gas ;
Contractor's Blast Hole Drilling,
River and Harbor Exploration,
etc. Our five catalogs are text-
books in these Imps.
KEYSTONE WELL WORKS
Beaver Falls, Pa.
How To Increase
READ carefully, every
week, the Business
and Personal Wants
column in the
This week it will be found
on page 390.
Some week you will be
likely to find an inquiry
for something that you
manufacture or deal in.
A prompt reply may bring
Watch it Carefully
Dispensing device, P. A. Frimand ....836,606
Display cabinet, D. F. Greenawalt 835,611
Display rack, card, I. Y. Henricks 835,615
Distillation of woods, retort for the, P.
Diving apparatus, T. Iwanami 835,950
Door controlling device, double, W. B. Reis. 835,984
Door hanger, S. J. Reynolds 835,734
Draft equalizer, S. E. Bailor 835,657
Draft equalizer, 6. Sundholm 835,922
Drier. See Clothes drier.
Dry kiln, L. Goebel 835,519
Drying apparatus, feed mechanism for, H.
Drinking fountain, chicken, Neu & Hahn.. 835,551
Dye and making same, azo, Kroeber & Jag-
erspacher, reissue 12,557
Dye and making same, blue azo, T. Kroe-
ber, reissue 12,556
Dye and making same, monoazo, T. Kroeber 835,539
Dye and making same, monoazo, T. Kroe-
ber, reissue 12,555
Dye and making same, triphenylmethane,
Herzberg "& Scharfenberg 835,682
Dye, making a cold, C. Henry 835,754
Dyeing apparatus, S. W. Cramer 835,813
Dyeing, etc., apparatus for, T. A. S. Wood 835,927
Eaves trough, 6. Cassen 836,012
Egg tester, J. L. Ritter .■ 835,639
Ejector, H. Barnett 835,658
Electric accumulator, Schmitt & Fabre.... 835,642
Electric conduits, bend, elbow, and other
angle piece for, Edwards & Brown.... 835,504
Electric current regulator, O. H. & A. F.
Electric heater, F. M. Vogel 835,841
Electric interrupter, L. G. Nilson, reissue.. 12,558
Electric light, portable, C. Hubert 835,529
Electroplating apparatus, A. J. Leaver.... 835,960
Elevator safety appliance, S. Cunningham.. 835,665
Embalming fluid, I. R. Burns 835,781
Engines, device for regulating the electric
spark of gasolene, H. O. Phillips 835,982
Envelop, M. M. Cohn 835,850
Exercising device, hand, J. E. Thompson.. 835,873
Explosive engine, J. F. Jensen 835,908
Extension table, C. H. Goller 835,609
Extension table, J. C. Holm 835,790
Extension table, J. Mitchell 835,973
Eyeglass connection, S. N. Stone 836,057
Fabrics, etc., manufacture of woven, J.
Fan, D. T. Kendrick 835,761
Fan, pneumatic, J. L. Creveling 835,782
Faucet, J. H. Semmons 835,837
Feed water heater for locomotive boilers,
W. A. Moffat 835,630
Fence post, J. W. Westlake 835,719
Fence post, G. F. Greene 835,885
Fence post, J. Kempf , Jr 836,043
Fence stay, W. J. La Grange 835,956
Fence stretcher, woven wire, H. J. Ferris. 835,786
Fertilizer spreader attachment, J. S. Sams. 835,641
Fertilizers, making, A. Vasseux 835,692
Filing case, H. Falvey 835,670
Finger cot, A. P. Witten 835,803
Finger stretching apparatus, W. J. Mennes 835,968
Fire escape, J. C. Sharp 835,985
Fire escape, Bostwick & Johnson 836,008
Fire pot for furnaces and stoves, J. P.
Firearm, C. Hansen 835,679
Firearm, T. C. Johnson 835,825
Fish hook, H. F. Strehlow 835,766
Fish hook, F. J. Hipp 836,038
Fishing float, F. E. Chester 835,500
Fishing reel, L. B. Ross 835,557
Floor drain, dry pan, J. P. Farley 835,852
Floor scraper, C. F. Swenson 835.690
Floor, wall, or ceiling plate, L. G. Olmsted 835,635
Flooring, machine for grinding mosaic, W.
H. Mooney et al 835,631
Fly shield, W. F. Elliott 836,021
Foods, device for retaining heat in, F. S.
Furnace fuel feeder or stoker, Jenkins &
Furnace or oven, H. Gehnrich 835,945
Furniture leg, R. E. Slesnick 835,738
Fuse, O. C. Hoffmann 835,618
Game counter and card cabinet, J. O.
Garbage furnace, B. Boulger 835,699
Garbage, treating, J. W. Sewell 835,689
Garment supporter, M. A. Wells 835,996
Gas analysis, apparatus for, E. Schatz . . . . 835,559
Gas engine, T. N. Kellett 835,759
Gas, generating, C. Ellis 835,506
Gas generator, acetylene, J. F. Ormiston.. 835,913
Gas lighter, electric, G. Giorgi 835,946
Gas, manufacturing, P. Schmidt 836,054
Gas producer, A. M. Levin 835,626
Gas producer, L. Boutillier 835,847
Gaseous fuel burner, R. J. Miner 835,629
Gate, J. T. Kelly 835,760
Gate, A. J. Shrope 835,987
Gate, A. E. Becker 836,061
Glass, method of and machine for making
wire, N. Franzen 835,511
Glass press, E. J. Hayes 835,613
Goggles, E. B. Meyrowitz 835,828
Golf club, W. Robertson 835,735
Grain shelling and hulling device, O. D.
Graphophone, J. J. Hammer 836,032
Hair dressing and shampooing device, R.
C. Dalton 835,814
Hammer, pneumatic, Carnahan & Murphy.. 835,936
Handle. See Saw handle.
Harness attachment, I. McKnight 835,549
Harrow, F. P. Bowman 835,879
Harrow, M. E. Campany 835,935
Harrow and weed cutter, combined rotary,
C. W. Keen 835,537
Harrow or cultivator, adjustable, S. I.
Hay carrier, L. Willour 835,653
Hay press, H. M. Tallman, reissue 12,559
Heating apparatus, J. H. Koons 835,954
Heel for shoes, detachable, G. Giovana.... 835,515
Hip strap line holder, S. E. Harsh 835,681
Hoisting apparatus, J. B. & H. E. Millard 835,829
Hoisting apparatus, car for, J. B. & H. E.
Hoof trimmer, W. S. Casterlin 835,900
Hook, E. Carlson 835,937
Horn support, R. L. Hammond 835,678
Horse checking apparatus, F. C. Jacobs.... 835,620
Horse, folding, L. Nolan 835,977
Horseshoe, C. G. Wilfong 835,875
Horseshoe, M. D. & H. H. Mudge 835,974
Horseshoe, nailless, J. Weill 835,650
Hose nozzle, F. H. Hartwell 835,612
Hot air generator, C. L. Bowne 836,009
Hot water supply and heating system, do-
mestic, Cowles & Simpson 835,812
Humidifying apparatus, J. J. Smith.835,894, 835,895
Hydrator, A. S. Crocker 836,066
Hydrocarbon burner, F. C. Loring 835,627
Hydrocarbon burner, G. Hochstrasser 835,683
Ice cream freezer, J. H. Genter 835,514
Insect destroyer, W. H. Pool 836,052
Insulating material and manufacturing
same, G. Kelly 835,685
Insulator for trolley roads, section, C. M.
Interest bearing instrument of obligation,
C. H. Davis 835,706
Internal combustion engine, F. W. Brady.. 835,773
Ironing board, W. D. Freytag 836,025
Jack, N. J. Schumacher 835,835
Kneading and mixing machine, F. Aesch-
Knitting machine stitch transferring de-
vice, J. Vaughan 836,058
Lacework, M. Jansen 835,533
Lacing fastener and bow holder, combined
shoe, H. H. Petty 835,981
Lacing tip, H. L. Hiller 835,824
Ladder round, S. J. Lamora 835,957
Lamp, electric candle, C. K. Decherd 835,816
Lamp, electric incandescent, F. M. F.
Lamp, gas, G. E. Hulse 835,705
Lamp lighting and extinguishing apparatus,
J. W. White 835,652
Lamps, cap for signal, F. L. Gilman...... 835,608
Lamps, gas generating attachment for oil,
L. N. Iuppenlatz 835,859
Lantern, tubular, C. Bergener 835,806
Last, H. F. Browne 835,746
Any Size or Shape
The Baltimore Cooperage Co.
BALTIHORE CITY, MD.
It's Easy to Keep Cool!
Tbesimplest, smallest, safest, neat-
est and most successful Motor Fan
made is the Rawlings Patent
High-Speed Water Motor
Fan. Can be installed in a few
minutes. No operating expenses.
Made of high-grade brass. Price
U-in. Fan with complete coun.
E. GINTZEL ttfiSQOM-
150 Nassau St., New Tork City
A MONEY MAKER
Hollow Concrete Building Blocks
Best, Fastest, Simplest, Cheapest
j. Machine. Fully guaranteed.
THE PETTYJOHN CO,
615 N. 6th Street, Terre Haute, Ind.
All teachers' and dealers' discounts now given
to the public on violins, guitars, mandolins,
and other stringed Instruments (special dis-
count also on flutes and clarinets) 10 days'
trial onanylnstrumentbefore you decideto
buy. Write today for free catalogue No.ll.
WM. G. LEWIS & SON (Estuh. 1869)
830 Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois.
Send for interesting advance information about
THE ROYAL JIOTOR CAR CO., CLEVELAND
Member A. L. A. M.
STEAM TURBINES. —THEIR CON-
struction. Operation and Commercial Application.
Scientific American Supplements 1306. 1307,
1308, 1423, 1400, 1447, 1370, 1372. The
articles have all been prepared by experts in steam
engineering. Price 10 cents each, hy mail. Munn &
Co., 361 Broadway, New York City, and all newsdealers.
It's a Fine Piece of Work
in itself. That's the best reason why all
the work it touches has the stamp of
quality and perfection.
(ioodell's Hand Drill
has new 20th century features. Double
gears. Two speeds. One chuck. Capacity
to % inch. Send for catalogue.
Asbestos and Magnesia Products
STEAM PIPE AND BOILER COVERINGS.
ASBESTOS PACKING (For all purposes).
ASBESTOS FIRE-RESISTING CEMENTS.
ASBESTOS BUILDING MATERIALS.
>*. W. JOHNS-MANYILLE CO.
New York, Milwaukee, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Pittsburg, Cleveland, New Orleans, Kansas
City, Minneapolis, Dallas, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, London.
■J-M" ASBESTOS ROOFING.
KEYSTONE HAIR INSULATOR.
£jfpyj P© r Cent. SENT FOR EXAMINATION
c\it in price
Owing to a complication of copyright which has arisen, the publishers of the
NEW AMERICANIZED ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA have arranged that
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The arrangements find the publisher with a large and revised edition in stock
which must be sold before a certain date ; and in his dilemma he turns to us as the
only house in America whose cash resources and tremendous powers of distribu-
tion are equal to the task of merchandising these books within the time limit.
We know that the task is impossible even to ourselves unless we can offer the
public a bargain at once obvious and overwhelming ; and our conditions are made
We are cutting 40 per
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The New Americanized
cannot be purchased after
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The work contains—
limit's, 9 x ii%
ver 100 su-
them i n
THE NEW AMERICANIZED
answers every question, resolves every doubt and settles every
It is tlist in authority, first in wealth of information, but latest
in date of publication. It includes j>.tnong its contributors the
greatest authorities, including such immortals as Huxley, Dar-
win-, Tyndall and Herbert Spencer.
AN IDEAL CHRISTMAS GTFT. A
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ect to your order. Send also the book rack
ch I am to get free if my order Is among
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Balance may be paid at the rate of, $2.00 a month.
The publishers sold the books at $75.00 for the
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bargain price in view of the fact that the books
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*If y ou want the cloth edition alter $46.00 to $37.00
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November 24, 1906.
Lathe tool holder, G. T. Reiss 835,784
Leather, etc., die for cutting and punching,
F. Mertinz 835,969
Lettering guide, R. Hanssen 835,680
Level, L. O. Sheflott 835,986
Level, plumb, W. P. Foster 836,024
Lifting jack, grain dump, R. L. Rhea 835,891
Link closing device, W. N. Appleton 835,696
Link forming machine, W. N. Appleton.... 835,697
Ijinoleum, manufacture of, A. A. Godfrey.. 835,518
Liquid, purifying, W. Hasenbach 836,034
Locomotive tenders, coal gate for, F. B.
Locomotives, vehicles, or machinery, appa-
ratus for recording the movements of,
J. F. H. Collet 835,901
Loom, kindergarten, J. C. Tyndall. ., 835,767
Loom picker, L. Z. Forgues 836,073
Loom warp stop motion, J. T. Bolton 835,807
Magnet, lifting, A. C. Eastwood 835,942
Mail bag catching and delivering apparatus
and semaphore mast, combined, W.
Mail carrying apparatus, H. E. Hall 835,677
Mail delivery box, T. B. Gray 835,675
Mailing machines, stencil for automatic,
O. A. Brown 835,700
Malt kiln, P. G. Toepfer 835,583
Measuring apparatus, molten metal, S. G.
Measuring instrument, electrical, F. Holden 835,755
Measuring machine, C. A. D. Burk 835,933
Measuring machine, fabric, J. A. Cox 835,601
Mechanical movement, J. A. Frenier 835,512
Metallic tie and rail fastener, J. FmBp.r. . . . 835,856
Metals, electrolytic process of making bases
of the alkali, earth, Brochet & Ranson. 835,661
Metals, finishing, A. K. Beckwith 835,659
Microtelephone, A. A. Lind 835,860
Milk cooler, H. F. Segert 835,893
Milking machine with electromagnetic clos-
ing device, A. Sabroe 835,918
Mill. See Ore crushing mill.
Mine drill, A. M. Rlckerd 835,832
Mining, breast board for underground, J.
Mixing machine, E. Ruttkamp 835,558
Molding machine, E. L. Martin 835,967
Monotype perforating machine keyboard, A.
Motor starter, automatic, W. F. Hendry . . 836,036
Movement cure apparatus, J. H. Kellopg... 835,622
Musical instrument, N. B. Lawson 835,958
Musical instrument, automatic, W. K. L.
Musical instrument, automatic self playing
and teaching, E. E. Barakat 836,003
Musical instruments, blower for, I. H.
Musical instruments, tracker bar for pneu-
matic players for, G. P. Brand 835,776
Nail box, J. Schuster 835,713
Nozzle, fluid, Isaacs & Speed 835,619
Nozzle for leaching vats, F. W. Allen 835,928
Nut lock, E. P. Dilley 835,940
Oil cloth, ornamenting, A. Leisegang 835,541
Oil cup, J. Huber 835,948
Oil feed device, H. O. & H. E. Spade 835,569
Oil separator for steam pipes, R. Schulz... 835,919
Oils obtained by destructive distillation of
resinous substances, purifying pitch and
other ethereal, A. Hesse 835,907
Oiler, J. R. Dean 835,815
Ordnance, telescopic sight for, A. Konig... 835,625
Ore crushing mill, roller, W. E. Wild 835,694
Oscillation responsive device, L. De Forest,
Outlet gate and hopper, W. A. Bishop 835,595
Package tie, C. H. Amann 835,656
Packing, engine or machine, G. W. Beldam 835,744
Packing for rotary machines, labyrinth, R.
Paper, colorably coating, E. J. & E. Taylor 835,579
Paper gage, W. Smith 836,055
Paper hanger's straight-edge holder, A.
Papering board and bucket holding attach-
ment therefor, E. B. Lamb 835,826
Pavement mixture, W. S. Wilkinson 836,059
Peat turf, production of half stuff from,
C. Esser 836,069
Percolator, H. C. Wright 835,804
Phonograph horn support, L. P. Halladay. 836,031
Photography, C. E. C. Kinney 835,623
Piano, J. H. Taylor 835,580
Picture frames, protective cover for, F. L.
Brown : 836,010
Pie making machine, J. C. Hutchison 835,756
Pipe pailling device, R. G. Coates 836,065
Planer, crank, Lutter & Gies 835,543
Plant bed steaming appliance, J. H. L.
Planter, corn, C. W. Robinson 835,640
Planter, corn, A. Dubach 835,941
Planter, cotton, J. H. Goodwin.. 835,610
Planter, hand seed, T. J. Banks 835,743
Plastering, composition of matter for, B.
E. Noble 835,831
Plow, W. H. Williams '. 835,997
Plow attachment, E. Wilke 835,695
Plow fender, R. R. Jones 835,684
Plow, potato, J. M. Drake 836,018
Plow, subsoil, E. Bippart 836,007
Pneumatically actuated devices, means for
automatically controlling, G. P. Brand. 835,777
Poke, animal, P. O. Holmgren 836,039
Post hole digger, W. J. Wall 835,994
Powder' cup, tooth, I. W. Lyon 835,861
Press, P. L. Simpson 835,566
Printing device, W. C. Grant 835,903
Printing press, C. L. Post 835,637
Printing press inking fountain, M. F. Deh-
Projectile, J. B. Semple 835.714
Pruning shears, V. W. Kelly 835,791
Puller. See Stump puller.
Pulley block, J. Bass 835,877
Pulley, loose, C. Moore 835,546
Punch, belt, F. E. Walden 835,740
Punching, stamping, and like machine, A.
Rail joint, W. C. Weaver 835,587
Rail joint, N. Durand 835,668
Rail tie; and chair, E. Butler 836,064
Railway' and other carriages, automatic
coupling for, R. B. Parsons 835,914
Railway and tramway points, etc., means
or appliance for operating, W. Taylor. 835,896
Railway crossing, H. A. Baker 835,898
Railway crossing, noiseless, G. D. Shoop... 835,565
Railway, inclined, E. C. Bruen 835,662
Railway signaling, Jacobs & Insell 835,951
Railway switch, J. Biggs 835,845
Railway . switch mechanism, T. Jackson.... 835,532
Railway tie, V. D. Sumner 835,716
Railway tie, J. S. Killen 835,730
Railway tie plate, F. A. Delano 835,002
Rams, air feed for hydraulic, A. H. Franc-
fort : 835,855
Receptacle, W. H. Smith 835,645
Reflector, R. Straubel 835,648
Ringing and listening key, operator's, W.
W. Dean 836,067
Rolling mill, cylinder, H. Ehrhardt 835,505
Rolls, W. Mountain 836,047
Roofing, ready made, W. J. Moeller 835,889
Rotary oscillating' reciprocating engine, W.
D. Williams 835,741
Roundabout, M. J. Doner 836,016
Rubber and fiber containing bodies, prepar-
ing, F. M. Ekert 836.06$
Rubber cutting machine, C. L. Higgins.... £35,622
Rudder, jury, R. Olsen 835,800
Safe and desk, combination, H. Reinke.... 835,555
Sash balance, window, J. G. Hall 835,788
Sash holder, D. W. Nuttall 835,878
Sash, window, O. M. Otte ... . 83fi,88S
Saw, crosscut, F. W. Mcintosh 836,048
Saw handle, M. H. Toomey 835,fi84
Saws, adjustable fence for, T. Bemis 836,006
Scale, spring. ess dial, F. H. Brown 835,81)0
Scale, truck, E. L. Gage 83fl,0T<l
Screen, D. D. Pinkham 835,636
Screw clamp, temper, P. H. Mack 835,545
Sealing- caps from vessels, means for re-
moVihg, ' J.' ' A! Hicks ....'..'..'.' . 835,789
Search, light, M. Carlisle 835,702
Seed separator, S. P. Glunt 835,517
Seeding device, J. M. Opper 835,979
Sewing machine edge guide, L. B. Bagley. 835,491
Saves 20% to 5095 on Power
In nearly every plant one-half the total power goes to waste - it is eaten up in friction.
A series of tests made by Prof. C. H. Benjamin, of the Case Scientific School, of
Cleveland, Ohio, at sixteen different works, proved that it took over 50 per cent, of the
total power of the plant to drive the shafting alone, when run in babbitted bearings. That
meant 50 per cent, of the power was unpro-
ductive. It showed for the
an average saving in friction over the babbitted
bearing as follows: 43.2 per cent, for the l^f
inch shaft; 73.6per cent, for the 2 T % inch shaft;
and 76.6 per cent, for the 2\\ inch shaft.
Without knowing anything whatever about
your plant, we guarantee, if you are now using
babbitted bearings, to save 10 per cent, of your
total power by replacing them with Peninsular
Self-Oiling Roller Bearings.
For any reliable firm we will glad .
Peninsular Self-Oiling Roller Bearings and allow tbem to b.
10 per cent, is assured; 50 percent, has been achieved, and
never have we fallen below a saving of 20 percent.
ladly put the claim to the test by equipping a shaft, or. if desired, their entire plant with
" i to be run for 30 to 60 days on trial. If they fail to sub-
stan iate our claim, the bearings can be returned at our expense.
Peninsular Self-Oiling Roller Bearings, besides what they save in power, save enormously in belting and
general wear and tear. Running in a bath of oil. they are non-heating and not a drop of oil is lost— a saving in oil of 50
per cent, over a babbitted bearing. These bearings are adapted to works of any character.
Write for Our Book on "POWER-SAVING"
eivinr official tests comparing relative efficiency of the babbitted bearings with the Peninsular Self-Oiling Roller
Beatings in reducing friction; also containing letters from companies engaged in all branches of manufacture now using
Peninsular Self-Oiling Roller Bearings.
Unless we save io per cent, of your total power they can be returned at our experts.
GEORGE A. McKEEt & CO., Ltd., Transmission Dept.,, JACKSON, MICH.
The car of flmallflat eiwt .Mid greikLfml a crwiTtpllsh tricot.
Holda world's record tot tftficietivy, economy and eiitiur-
&Tica r Stnart to look nt. Rmiple kmpemt^. Economics!
to maintain. 4 K. P. atr^ooJeri, Reliable under all
wndl turns, ilIE Tvads* Stimuli 3U miles a» hour, i"omaKl
and revsrae* Catalog free.
It does the work of three teams. A motor cot of
proven effitiency for Parcel aud Express Delivery. An
ideal car for every kiiid of business aud every form of
merchandise, in cities, towns and villages. Alakes money
by saving time — prompt delivery makes satisfied cus- 1
tomers. Few parts an d every part strong. 4 H.P. Air-
cooled. Weight 610 lbs. Capacity 600 lbs. including
"4 to ISmilesanhouron ordinary roads
Active agents desired in unas-
signed territory. Write for dis-
counts and agency terms.
Waltham manufacturing Co.
Waltham, Maas., U. S. A.
Whitewash a SS 6 t£ e ter
One man can apply whitewash or cold water paint to
10,000 Square Feet of Surface in One Day
and do better work than with a brush. It is also adapted for
spreading disinfectants, destroying Insect pests
and diseases on trees, vegetables
and other plants, extinguishing
fires, washing 1 window's, wagons,
oil other purposes. The mac nine is
real t v a little water works system
on whet la because the easy move-
ment of the pump develops a
t'' & ' 7 li [ JKV>ttt$k.1 \ pressure exceedingSOpounds and
- BBmE^M^ EJJmlL \ will raise the liquid more than
S flRl'1G|Ktj\| **0 f ee * ^nove its own level. The
^■^^^TzvRPj2Bt1\ P r °g res8 J 12 gallon size,
only $21.00; the '20 galka
size $30:0. '. It will last a
lifetime and pays for itstlf
the iirst year. Other types
of machines sold as low as
.00 and $10.00. Write for
lOayton Supply Co., Dept. R, Dayton, 0.|
J. LLEWELLYN KING
ELIZABETHPORT. N. J.. U. S. A.
Builder of Stern Wheel, Paddle and Screw
Steamers, Torpedo Boats and Barges of all
kinds in Steel. .£> j& £? A Specialty made of
South American and Alaskan River
Boats, Launches, Dories, Canoes, Etc.
Send for nurnewfree bivtlt J
.which tells all about the!
* science of real estate 1 nvest-f
^ ment. How to invest small I
* choose real estate j uciiciausly. I
kWhat cl&ss of properties gtowtl
I In valuemostfapidly. Howlnncfl
to hold iprooeiiy. When and I
whereto buy- Cause of growth in |
population, rtc. TJiisbook Isnotanad-
vertlsemert oi any particular investment but Istlieenn* I
denied expert testimony of the best known real estate I
) men- Tins hook will Interest every one who has Jg or f
morea month to Invest ind wants tn Invest ft where It
ivtll be^afeyetwheTeltTVilleatn more than an ordinary [
- 3 or 4 tf i uterest. Write us a postal saying, send J, Dol- I
larfi in Dirt." You will rtceivetli* houlc by return null. J
if W.M-OS , IWHpER, fnc.37S NffrtbMcu tin, rTlilldtfplto j
Suite 3T8, Sfl W. 4*d St, New York CTfr
SPRINGFIELD ABRASIVE POLISHING
WHEELS AND BLOCKS.
Used for polishing machinery, cutlery
and edge tools of all kinds and for re-
moving rust spots from highly polished
metal. Makes a very smooth surface
without marring. Containing rubber
which gives it the resilient effect. Made
with either Emery or Carborundum in
different grades. Write for price list
and special trade discounts.
The Springfield Tire and Rubber Co.,
Spfing field. Ohio, U.S. A.
Its Industrial Use
The Cost of Manufacturing Denatur-
ized Alcohol In Germany and German
Methods of Denaturization are discussed
by Consul-General Frank H. Mason in
Scientific American Supplement 1550.
The Use, Cost and Efficiency of Alcohol
as a Fuel for Gas Engines are ably ex-
plained by H. Diederichs in Scientific
American Supplement 1596. Many clear
diagrams accompany the text. The article
considers the fuel value and physical pro-
perties of alcohol, and gives details of the
alcohol engine wherever they may be dif-
ferent from those of a gasoline or crude
In Scientific American Supplement
15S1 the Production of Industrial Alcohol
and its Use in Explosive Hotors are
treated at length, valuable statistics being
given of the cost of manufacturing alcohol
from farm products and using it in engines.
French flethods of Denaturization con-
stitute the subject of a good' article pub-
lished in Scientific American Supple-
How Industrial Alcohol is Hade and
Used is told very fully and clearly in No. 3,
Vol. 95, of the Scientific American.
The Most Complete Treatise on the Mo-
dern Manufacture of Alcohol, explaining
thoroughly the chemical principles which
underlie the process without too many
wearisome technical phrases, and describ-
ing and illustrating all the apparatus re-
quired in an alcohol plant is published in
Scientific American Supplements 1603,
1604 and 1605. The article is by L. Baudry
de Saunier, the well-known French autho-
In Supplements 1607, 1608, 1609 we pub-
lish a digest of the rules and regulations
under which the U. S. Internal Revenue
will permit the manufacture and denatura-
tion of tax free alcohol.
The Sources of Industrial Alcohol,
that is the Farm Products from which al-
cohol is distilled, are enumerated by Dr.
H. W. Wiley in Scientific American
Supplements 161 i and 1612 and their
relative alcohol content compared.
Any Single Number of the Scientific
American or Supplement will be sent for
10 cents by mail. The entire set of papers
above listed will be mailed on receipt of
Order from your newsdealer or from the
MUNN <& COMPANY
361 Broadway, New York
Sewing machines, guard for inseam, C. I.
Puller jl 835,513
Shade for uluflows or the like, adjustable,
J. J. Dennis 835,603
Shafts, means for securing' tools upon, Ev-
ans & Taylor 835,820
Shelf supporting bracket, adjustable, E.
Shingle, W. S. Divver 835,818
Shingle machine, J. D. O'Brien 835,633
Shoe cobblers, finishing machine for the use
of, A. W. Wahluuist a35,586
Shoe polisher, A. P. Bigford 835,660
Shutter, rolling or flexible, J. Cahill 835,599
Sign letter, electric, C.- A. Chase 835,848
Skate runner grinding fixture, C. L. Joy. . . 835,535
Skirt binding, C. P. Schlegel 835,834
Slot or vending machine and coin testing
mechanism therefor, coin controlled, L,
J. Disser 835,851
Snap fastener, W. S. Richardson 835,867
Soil working machine, L. F. Bassett 835,929
Soldering tool, S. Kohn 835,794
Sound reproducer, T. H. Macdonald 835,544
Sparring apparatus, C. Lindsley 835,796
Speed controller, multivoltage, A. D. Du
Speed of any and all machines, device for
regulating the, Oierhart & Hansen 835,607
Spike, J. W. Ford 8,<!5,944
Spout, flexible, J. J. Gerber 836,027
Spring jack switch, C. H. North 836,049
Sprocket wheel, E. P. Keppelmann 836,044
Stalk cutter and barrow, combined, Carpen-
ter & Fonville 835,499
Stamp, F. Wenke 835,651
.Ktimip, hand, L. K. Scotford 835,562
-Ktanehkjti, P- F. Miller 835,911
Station indicator, I. C. Bandman 835,592
Steam boiler, M. Connor 835,749
Steam boiler, P. Ssiway 835,872
Steam generators, feeding arrangement for,
C. Renard 835,916
Steam, etc., process and apparatus for gen-
erating, R. M. Hunter 835,531
Steam producer, I. H. Boyer 835,597
Still and condenser, continuous, R. W. Er-
Stirrup, 6. H. Zimmerman 836,000
Stopper. See Bottle stopper.
Storing apparatus, material, W. J. Selleck 835,563
Stove, J. M. Mitchell 836,046
Stove attachment, gas, W. S. Ward 835,693
Strainer cleaning device, D. H. Staples 836,056
Strips of material, press for feeding and
cutting up, F. Ecaubert 836,020
Structural shape, J. R. Tanner 835.578
Stump puller, J. H. Caldwell 835,934
Sulfur burner, agitating, J. C. Wise 835,926
Surveyors' instruments, plumb device for,
Olsen & Torgersen 835,7 11
Suspending hook, portable, W. R. Johnson 836,041
Swaging machine, J. A. Horton 835,729
Swimming mitt, W. O. Wells 835,588
Swing, C J. Weiland 835,924
Switch operating and locking mechanism,
L. E. L. Themke 835,989
Syringe, S. H. Chubb 835,849
Syringe, vagina], W. H. Brandon 835,496
Tag, T. G. Portmore 835,687
Telegraph instrument, D. O. Stinson 835,647
Telegraph repeater, P. E. Bliss 835,772
Telegraphic systems, automatic transmitter
for, J. Gell 835,750,835,751
Telephone exchange for double wire tele-
phone systems, automatic, G. A. Betu-
Telephone exchange system, H. G. Webster 835,802
Telephone exchanges, central energy sys-
tem for, J. G. Roberts 835,868
Telephone set, head, J. Pieringer 835,865
Telephone systems, selective signal for, M.
H. Degnail 835,704
Telephone wire securing means, II. W
Thill coupling, J. D. Barry 836,060
Threshing machine cylinder tooth, J. R
_„ Ha H .' 836,030
Tile, Are brick, J. V. Boland 835,596
Tiles, slabs, and the like of plastic ma-
terial, apparatus for molding, A. Gas-
Tipple, Stouffer & Tidrick 835 574
Tire, H. T. Bragg 835,808
Tire envelope,- automobile, C W. A. Cor-
„ nisn ' 835,502
Tire, wheel, J. Cooper 835,939
Tobacco sacks, stopper attachment for, W.
L - Fross 835,787
Tool, combination, R. Bartholomaus 835,698
Tool, combination, L. S. Loudon : 836,075
Tool operating and holding device, W. H.
Donnelly . ._. 835,727
Tool, pneumatic, W. Wheeler 835.589
Toy, P. McMahon 835,550
Toy, L. H. Pfleghardt 836,050
Trace fastener, L. L. Lent 835,962
Track anchor, G. H. Miller.... 835,910
Transporting system, J. Whiteford 835,590
Trap door, skylight and roof ventilator, F.
Trees, balling device for transplanting, II.
Trolley for electric railways, E. F. Landis. 835,731
Trolley harps, contact spring for, J. Hens-
loiy ••• 835,728
Trolley pole clamp, Fellows & Cammett... 835,821
Trolley signals, circuit closer for, A. Bevan 836,062
Trolley tracks, switch block for, R. John-
Tucking blades, ribbon guide for, Townsepd
& Bolles 835,991
Tumbler washer, rotary, F. W. Will 835,925
Turbine, elastic fluid, J. H. O. Bunge 835,748
Turnbuckle, J. O. C. Briggs 836,063
Turned articles, apparatus for making, C.
Twisting and spinning fibrous materials,
machine for, D. C. Sweet 835,577
Type, H. C. Gammeter 836,026
Type and type holder, W. Laycock 835,795
Typewriter pointer, G. J. Barrett 835,494
Typewriter ribbon threader, N. L. Anderson 835,722
Typewriting machine, J. Felbel 835,509
Typewriting machine, R. H. Strother 835,575
Typewriting machine carriage, H. Hill 835,823
Valve, G. E. Franquist 835,854
Valve for blowing engines, J. V. M. Patitz. 835,712
Valve for gas and similar engines, F. C.
Valve for radiators, air, T. Wheatley 835,720
Valve for regenerative furnaces, G. W.
Valve operating mechanism for steam en-
gines, H. Lentz 835,963
\alve, primary pneumatic, G. P. Brand... 835.775
Valve seat, pneumatic, G. P. Brand 835,778
Valve, stop, E. Hill, Jr 835,523
Valve, throttle, C. C. Fawcett 836,023
Vaporizer or carbureter, C. D. Shain...... 835,564
Vault light construction, E. M. Johnson.... 835,534
Vehicle canopy, J. R. Ryan 835,869
Vehicle wheel, J. M. Kerwin et al 835,793
Vehicles, etc., friction gearing for motor,
L. Maurer 835,797
Vending machine, coin controlled, M. E.
Veterinary instrument, G. W. Read 835,688
Wagon, H. J. Ferris 835,785
Wagon box fastener, E. C. Tuttle 835,691
Wagons and the like, loading apparatus
for, L. Kniffen 835,624
Walls and other articles, textile covering
for, P. Richter 835,765
Wardrobe, R. Burford 835.701
Wardrobe, knockdown, M. Damato 835,902
Washer. See Tumbler washer.
Washing machine, N. Allgier 835,591
Washing machine, R. C. Smith 835,644
Washing machine, Elwell & Martin 835,943
Washing machine, R. E. Leavens 835,959
Washing machine, J. F. Nelson 835,975
Watch stand, M. Roller 835,762
Water heating apparatus, J. A. Hosp 835,947
Water indicator, C. Steinhauser 835,920
Water, making potable and aerated, R. T.
Weather strip, C. W. Wright 835,654
Welding and shaping chain links, machine
for, I. . D. Weaver 835,842
Wheel box, I. A. Weaver 835,768
November 24, 1906.
Advertising i 11 this column is 50 cents a line. No less
than four nor more than ten lines accepted. Count
seven words to the line. All orders must be accom-
panied by a remittance. Further information sent on
SALE AND EXCHANGE.
MANGANESE OaE LANDS for Sale or Lease on
Royalty in Central India, containing large quantities
first-class manganese ore. Address for full particulars,
"India," c./o. Street's, 30 Com hill, London, England.
FOB SALE.— Engine Lathe, swings 9J* in. takes 25 in.
between centers; complete with full set change gears
to cut all size threads, 3 to 40 in. ; price only $41.00. Ad-
dress L. F. Grammes & Sons, Allentown, Pa.
HOW TO SELL STOCK-IF YOU WANT CAPITAL
send stamp for my booklet, "Howto Sell Stock;" tells
how capital is secured, how to reach investors by mail,
by advertising, by personal solicitation; how to get
investors' names, bow to write prospectus. Cash A.
Harris, 6076, 1 Madison Avenue, New York.
FOR SALE— United States and Canadian patents.
The world's best surf-actuated motor. The only Motor
with sufficient regularity for dynamo operation.
Address Tad Danford, Granby, Colo.
WATEB STILL.— Fits any Tea Kettle. Guaranteed
one to two quarts per hour. Without kettle $2 00.
Express prepaid in United States $2 50. Adams Co., 396
West Polk Street, Chicago.
STEEL WHEELS to fit any wagon or cart. Made
any size, any width of tire. Also handy wagons with
low wheels and wide tires. Wood wagons with steel
wheels, or steel wagons with steel wheels. Log wagons
and heavy traction wagons of all kinds, for horses or
traction engine power. Steel axles of any Size and
shape. Address Electric Wheel Company, Walton
Square. Quincy, 111., U, S. A.
LET ME FIGUBE ON STAMPINGS for sheet
metal work. I also want to buy patents on small
specialties, something that I can manufacture in
conjunction with Williams' Ventilating Window-
Sash Fasteners. Write me description to-day.
Address Charles Hoyt Williams, 1046 Fidelity Build-
ing. Buffalo, N. Y.
UNUSUALLY GOOD SALABIES and a strong
demand for men in the photo-engraving business.
The wonderful increase in the use of illustrations
in all newspapers and magazines creates an un-
filled call for men to turn out cuts. Twenty-five
Dollars to Fifty Dollars a week is easily made.
¥ ou can learn this paying trade in New York
day or evening. Address United States School
of Photo-Engraving, 466 Pearl Street, corner Park
Bow, New York.
WANTED.— Superintendent to take charge of small
plant for manufacturing mechanical specialties and
machinery. Must have practical experience in modern
shop methods. Writegiving full experience and salary
required. Superintendent, Box 773, New York.
WE MANUFACTURE METAL SPECIALTIES of
all kinds. Best equipment, Send sketch or model for
estimate, stating quantity. Hayes Manufacturing Co.,
465-75 Maybury Avenue, Detroit, Mich.
TO THOSE HABD OF HEABING-An efficient aid
sent for trial, no expense, no risk, no contract, no
money unless device he kept. For full particulars
address A, O. Tiemann & Company, 107 Park Row,
LEARN TO INVENT and develop your ideas for
profit; we are not patent, lawyers. Boston School of
Inventing, P. O. Box 3566, Boston, Mass. Particulars
TYPEWRITERS. -All makes, all prices. Twelve
stores in principal cities. Catalogue and address of
nearest store sent on request. The Typewriter Ex-
change Company, Dept. A, 343 Broadway, New York.
OFFERS are invited for purchase of four United
States Patents covering Incandescent Gasoline Lamps.
The Lamp is a great success in Britain as manufactured
by Petrolite, Ltd., 106 York Boad, Lambeth, London.
The Lamp is safe (liquid being contained in absorbent
block) clean and economical, with brilliant light. No
smoke, no smell, no cleaning. Inquiries to Guthrie &
Cairns, 4a St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh, Scotland.
AMAZING SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY ! Science
finds fountain of youth. Send for prospectus of fact,
insuring tremendous profits for investment in stock of
the Backelet Gen'l Magnet Co., manufacturers of the
Bacbelet Magnetic Wave Generators. Convenient for
use inevery house and office. Full particulars. Address
H. C. Walker, 11th Floor, Flatlron Bldg., New York.
Write for exclusive territorial rights.
AFTER three years of labor and experimenting we
succeeded In completing a great money-making electric
invention; public necessity; possible demand for mil-
lions; patent Issued, others pending; wish to meet capi-
talist to place on market ; perfect working models on
exhibition. Stein Broa, Electrical Engineers. 237 East
18th Street, N- Y.
WANTED to buy a pair of very heavy Alligator
Shears second-hand. If you have anything to offer
please quote price, state weight of the Shears and capa-
city. South Send Chilled Plow Co., South Bend, tnd.
AUTO CAR PRACTICE.-" Homans' Self - Propelled
Vehicles." 1907 edition just issued, right up to date, is
the most complete book on the motor car; practical,
fully illustrated, 600 pages, handsomely bound. Price
$2.00 post paid, money back If not satisfied. Agents
wanted. Specimen pages free upon request. For full
particulars and information address Theo. Audel & Co.,
63 Fifth Avenue, New York.
WANTED, BOOKS.— The Scranton International Li-
brary of Technology, Vols. 1-to 81. Must be latest edi-
tion and ingnodi condition. Address, stating lowest price
for cash, The Librarian, State Agricultural College,
Agricultural College P. O., Michigan.
AUTOMOBILE EXPERTS are in constant demand
at high salaries. Our six weeks' course is the most
thorough and practical, fitting men to drive, handle and
repair. Day and evening classes. Special course for
owners. New York School of Automobile Engineers,
146 West 56th Street, New York.
NO BETTEB WAY for the technical specialist to
learn of opportunities in his line than through us.
Write us to-day, stating experience. Hapyoods, 305
Broadway, New York.
SUPERINTENDENT for electrical plant $2500, Drafts-
man $1000, Manager $1500, Bookkeeper $1200, Salesman
$1800. Other positions on file. Write for list and plan.
Business Opportunity Company, 1 Union Square, N. Y.
WANTED.— Competent Draughtsman and Designer
with experience in handling men, for position with ma-
chine shop. Salary $1,500 to $1,800 per year depending:
on experience, Apply to Draughtsman, Box 773, N. \-
ENGINEER WANTED.— A college-bred engineer with
practical experience and a capital of $2000 to take active
interest in and charge of an Engineering School to oe
affiliated with a well established S3hool in the West.
For full information and particulars, write to Dr. Diet-
rich, 730Grand Ave,, Milwaukee, Wis,
PATENTS FOR SALE.
FOR SALE.— Valuable patent in plumbing line. Will
sell all or part interest. Stand thorough investigation.
Large profits can be made. Address Patent, 917
Seventh Avenue, New York.
FOR SALE.-LT. S. Patent No. 811,322 granted Jan..
1906, on Collapsible Canopy for launches. Excellent
opportunity for party with manufacturing appliances.
Address John Poltock, East Rutherford. N.J.
PATENTS SOLD ON COMMISSION. -If you wish
to buy or sell a patent write for particulars to E. L.
Perkins, 72 Broad Street, Boston. Patent Sales Exclu-
WANTED,— Partner with money to manufacture and
place upon market Razor Stropping any one can use-
does quick work— bears good profit. Forfull particulars
address H. P. Fowler Pelham, S. C,
JOHN F. P1TZ, INC., 89 FRANKFORT ST., makers
of patterns and models. Every facility for aiding in-
ventors to perfect tneir ideas. Large and small contracts
executed promptly. Machine patterns a specialty.
A GOOD model is necessary to show satisfactory
results of an invention, only first class experimental
and construction work. Instruments of every descrip-
tion, expertadvice. Geo, Kirkegaard, bU Pearl St., N.Y.
MACHINERY FOR SALE.
IF interested in power for any kind of light manufac-
turing, electric litrMmg. marine or other purposes, set
information on the most improved kerosene oil engine
by sending for catalogue to Remington Oil Engine Co.,
41 Park Row.
THE "PNEU-WAY *' of lighting gas! Lights Wels-
bachs without electricity from button on wall ! Easily
installed, ever lasting. Ask your gas company or write
Pneumatic Gas Lighting Company, 150 Nassau St., N. Y.
Valuable Christmas surprise.
THE RECORD of the Hogan Water Tube Boiler
proves it the safest, most reliable and efficient steam
generator known. Built only by James Dean, Bidge-
field Park, N. J. Information for tlie asking.
Whiffletree, C. Harrell 835,904
Whist, chart for keeping records of bridge,
J. E. Russell 835,833
Wind motor, J. J. Donnelly 835,667
Wind shelter, K. von Helmolt 835,906
Winding machine, yarn, J. K. Altemus 835,490
Winding mechanism, spring, O. Ohlson 835,710
Window fastener, J. A. Bock 835,931
Window, metallic, W. J. Burton 835,598
Wire stretcher, J. H. Lee 835,961
Wrench, B. Tindall 835,990
Yarn nipper, C. H. L. Kahler 835,536
Card, playing, E. W. Beers 38,310
Garters, hose hook for, E. A. Herr 38,312
Lamp shade, E. D. Terry 38,311
Abrasive material, paper and cloth coated
with, H. Behr & Co
Ale, lager beer, and porter, A. G. Van
Ales, porter, half-and-half, and brown stout,
Antiseptic, germicide, and disinfectant, Fred-
erick C. Adams
Arch supporters, A. E. Little & Co
Bactericides, Griserin-Werke Paul Camphau-
sen G. m. b. H
Baking powder, S. Scheuer & Co
Baking powder, bicarbonate of soda, cream
of tartar, and yeast powder, E. R. Dur-
kee & Co
Bath tubs, enamel metallic, Louis Lipp Co. .
Bath tubs, washstands, sinks, etc., enam-
eled iron, Wheeling Enameled Iron Co.
Beef, tongue, and lard, roast, Swarzschild &
Beer, Pabst Brewing Co
Beer, Anheuser-Bush Brewing Association. .
Beer, Monumental Brewing Co. of Baltimore
Beer, Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association..
Beer, ale, and brown stout, C. F. Lauber..
Beer, ale, and porter, lager, Du Bois Brew-
ing Co 57,328,
Beer, lager and bottled, Terre Haute Brew-
ing Co 57,345,
Belting, hose, and machinery packings, Re-
vere Rubber Co.. 57,359, 57,371, 57,388,
57,402, 57,403, 57,432,
Beverages juices, syrups, and extracts, cer-
tain named, Chesterman Co
Blind adjusters, New York Blind and Tran-
som Adjuster Co
Blue, laundry, J. C. Kellogg
Boiler cleansing compounds, J. Williams, Jr.
Boots, and particularly waterproof boots,
men's leather, Henry B. Reed Co
Boots and shoes, leather, Alter & McCaffrey
Boots and shoes, leather, Gore Lace Shoe Co.
Boots and shoes, leather, Geo. H. West Shoe
Boots and shoes, leather, Churchill and Al-
Boots and shoes, men's and boys' leather,
Boots, shoes, and slippers and leather used
in their manufacture, leather, Packard
Braids, chip and straw, Parsons Brothers
Brick and terra cotta, McKeesport Brick Co.
Bricks or slabs, Scaglioline Brick and Fire-
Building and roofing material, waterproof and
weatherproof, Paraffine Paint Co
Butter, Ammon & Person
Candy, Lipps-Murbach Co. of Baltimore City
Candy, hard and soft, Quaker City Choco-
late and Confectionery Co 57,604,
Canned, bottled, and packaged fruits and
vegetables, Zarnits Brothers Grocery Co.
Canned fish and oysters, Oklahoma Whole-
sale Grocer Co
Canned fruits and vegetables, E. T. Smith
Canoes, Old Town Canoe Co
Champagne, Blondeau, Berque & Co
Chemical composition, certain, H. E. Per-
Chemical finishing compound, R. Bernheim..
China, stoneware, earthenware, etc.. Ville-
roy & Boch
Chisels, cold chisels, and gouges, Hibbard,
Spencer, Bar.tlett & Co
Chocolate, Soc. An. Des Fabriques Bernoises
& Zuricoises De Chocolat Lindt & De
Chucks, E. Horton & Son Co
Cigars, Cuesta, Rey & Co
Cigars, cheroots, and cigarettes made of ci-
gar-tobacco, Cayey-Caguas Tobacco Co..
Cleaning and polishing material, Matchless
Metal Polish Co
Cleaning preparations, C. J. Leedy
Coal tar preparations, certain, National Coal
Coffee, N. L. Burchell
Coffee and tea, Humphrey Coffee & Tea Co.
Coffee, roasted, Louisiana Molasses Co
Colors, powder to fix fresco and lime, Les
Produits Chimiques de Croissy
Compounds for treatment of catarrhal dis-
eases, I. B. Pierce
Corsets, Corset H Co 57,408,
Cotton ginning machinery, Continental Gin
Crackers, Hygienic Health Food Co
Crackers" and biscuits, C. D. Boss & Son ....
Decalcomania transfer sheets, ornamental,
Ceramic Transfer Co 57,496,
Desks, tables, and cabinets, Krag Imperial
Explosives, high, Eastern Dynamite Co.
57,352, 57,363, 57,364. 57,397, 57,398,
57,422, 57,423, 57,443,
Eyeglasses, W. H. Spangler
fbeders, automatic boiler, Gravity Controller
Fertilizers, Coweta Fertilizer Co 57,293.
Fertilizers, Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co.
57,298 to 57,307, 57,310, 57,315 to 57,319,
is easily the peer of any car built in America. We have actually accom-
plished in Type XV, shown in the above picture, what no other domestic
manufacturer has even attempted— Chrome Nickel Steel Construction and
genuine Deutsche Waffen Fabrik Bearings throughout. We have retained
the matchless features which have gained for the Pope-Toledo, in the past,
most of the important records for speed, hill climbing and endurance, and
added the best continental practice, including four-speed selective type trans-
emission ; multiple metal disc clutch running in oil; mechanical valves;
noiseless chains; 36-inch wheels, chrome nickel steel I-beam solid axles;
many minor improvements, and design and finish that is new, distinctive and
distinguished. Price $4,250. Send for complete advance literature.
POPE MOTOR CAR CO., TOLEDO. OHIO
Members A. L. A.
223 Columbus Ave.
819 14th St., N.W.
The/Sew Models of t fie
Ty p e w r i t e r
please the man who
receives the letters
— because the work
is the best he has
They satisfy the
man who signs the
letters — because the
work is the best and
the swiftest he has
They gratify the
operator who writes
the letters — because
the work is the best,
the swift est and the
easiest she has ever
The NewRgmmftm Escapement accounts for it all nave YOU seen it?
Remington Typewriter Company
NewYot k and Everywhere
November 24, 1906.
January 12 to 19, 1907
AS USUAL AT
MADISON SQUARE GARDEN
UNDER. THE DIRECTION OF THE
ASSOCIATION OF LICENSED AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS
The Following Leading Makes of American and Foreign Cars are Sold by Licensees Under the Selden Patent and will be Exhibited
C. G. V.
PIERCE GREAT ARROW
S. & M. SIMPLEX
Also Complete Exhibits by The Importers Automobile Salon, Incorporated, and The Motor and Accessories Manufacturers, Incorporated
Files and rasps, Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett &
Piles and saws, F. W. Gesswein Co 57,451
Filters, Burt Manufacturing Co 57,394
Flannel cloth, C. Smith 57,477
Flavoring extracts, Dr. Chase Chemical Co. 57,582
Flour, wheat, Barber Milling Co 57,576
Flour, wheat, Bulsing & Heslenfeld. 57,578
Flour, wheat, John F. Meyer & Sons Mill-
ing Co. . . . 57,596
Flour, wheat, Longmont Farmers Milling &
Elevator Co 57,598
Flour, wheat, Semler Milling Co 57,611
Flour, wheat, W. J. Jennison Co •••••■ 57,615
Fly paper and sticky preparation, sticky, O.
& W. Tbum Co 57,566
Fly paper, sticky, O. & W. Thum Co.. 57,537, 57,567
Foods, certain named cereal, American Cereal
Games of chance, J. Becker 57,288
(Jin, sloe, J. Hawker & Co 57,261
Governors, engine, Pickering Governor Co. 57,470
Gum, chewing, Royal Remedy & Extract Co. 57,607
Harmonicas and accordions, mouth, Firm of
M. Hohner 57,508
Harmonicas, mouth, Firm of M. Hohner
Heel counters, Morton & Son 57,383
Jewelry and silver plated precious metal
ware, certain named, Hamilton & Ham-
ilton, Jr 57,454
Kersey and cassimere, W. J. Dickey & Sons 57,308
Knit drawers, Indianapolis Knitting Mills. . 57,381
Knit hosiery, Chicago-Kenosha Hosiery Co. 57,375
Knitted underwear, William Carter Co. 57, 489, 57,523
Knives, forks, and spoons, plated, Interna-
tional Silver Co 57,458
Knives, scissors, and razors, J. W. Biggins 57,439
Lamp chimneys, Geo. A. Young Co 57,504
Lamps and stoves, petroleum, Aktiebolaget
Lard and certain named meats, Schwarz-
schild & Sulzberger Co 57,608, 57,609
Lard, leaf, Parker, Webb & Co 57,603
Lead and linseed oil, oxids of, National
Lead Co 57,466
Leather polish and dressing, S. Graziano &
Liniment or ointment, T. P. Baldwin 57,527
Lubricants and lubricant stocks, cylinder,
Fred G. Clark -Co 57,503
Magazine, semi-monthly, Review Publishing
Magazines or periodicals, G. W. Wilson,
Malt and hops, extract of, Pabst Brewing Co. 57,335
Matches, safety, Jonkopings och Vulcans
Mattresses or bottoms, spring, Kansas City
Spring Bed Co 57,562
Medicine, certain named, R. V. Pierce. . . . 57,518
Medicine for the prevention of gonorrhea,
Preventol Chemical Co 57,520
Metal sawing machines and saws therefor,
Higley Machine Co 57,425
Metal tubes, Stewarts and Lloyds 57,480
Mince meat, Whipple Co-operative Co 57,618
Motor and dynamo brushes, Morgan Crucible
Music playing instruments and music rolls
therefor, automatic, Wilcox & White
Musical instrument strings, Lyon & Healy 57,370
Needles, crochet hooks, knitting needles, and
bodkins, John James & Sons 57,412
Newspaper, W. R. Hearst 57,354, 57,355
Newspaper, daily, Morning Journal Associa-
Newspaper, daily, New England Newspaper
Publishing Co. 57,357
Newspaper, daily, New York Evening Jour-
nal Publishing Co 57,358
Newspaper, daily, Star Co 57,360
Newspaper, daily, Illinois Printing & Pub-
lishing Co 57,368
Newspaper, daily, Star Co 57, Q 7.2
Newspaper, weekly, W. R. Hearst 57,8oo
Oysters and shrimp, Aughinbaugh Canning
Oysters, Fresh and canned, Torsch Packing
have our goods in stock, but
you may not readily find them.
Send order to us, then you will
equipments through the local
merchant or from us by prepaid
express. Sold singly or in sets.
25* 4 FOR® I
Bet He Genuine iooii
BOTH men and women like the "Goodform" Closet Sets.
They save trouble and expense of pressing garments, re-
taining the shape and form ; they increase the capacity of closets;
every garment is instantly get-at-able. You will wonder how
you ever did without it; for it's a joy every day in the year.
"Goodform" Set for Men
6Coat Hangers, No. 21, adjustable.
6 Trousers Hangers, No. 41, cloth
1 each Shelf Bar and Door I^oop.
1 Shoe Rail, No. 27.
"Goodform" Set for Ladies
6 Coat Hangers, No. 21, adjusta-
6 Skirt Hangers, adjustable.
1 each Shelf Bar and Door I^oop.
1 Shoe Rail, No. 27.
'I Knew He Would Like It."
All nickel plated. In attractive enameled boxes, especially right for
Christmas. Remember we deliver for the price.
Accept no substitutes. Get the genuine. Every article in the "Goodform"
Sets is superior to anything of its kind: if not, send anything or everything
back and money will be refunded. For years "Goodform 1 * Sets have been a
favorite with gift buyers. Our experience and perfect equipment enable us to
handle the holiday trade promptly. Your order will have quick and careful
attention. Booklet free.
744 Garden City Block
Chicago Form Company, it^oo
GOODFORM SHOE RAIL N0.27
NICKEL PLATED 25*
LIEJLIRIISr WATCH K/E^-A-IE-inSTGr
It's a trade easily learned ; we will show you how absolutely Free of Charge. Our complete illustrated Instruction book enables yo« to
do the work at home giving you every advantage of the apprentice. Instruction Book and Complete Outfit of Tools by express
$5.50. Send for our free 'Wholesale Catalogue of Watches, Diamonds, Jewelry, Clocks, Silverware, etc., with confidential discounts. We will
also send you free of charge our Watchmakers' Tool and Material Catalogue with Illustrated Instruction Book. WRITE TO-DAY.
ROGERS, THUKMAN & CO., Jeweler's Wholesale Supply House, 34 to 44 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111., F. S. A.
New Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Books
A new 112-page Catalogue is now ready for distribution. It is entirely
new and lists 5,000 of the latest and best books of a scientific and
technical nature. Copies are being mailed to all subscribers to our
periodicals, but those who purchase our publications at news stands,
or read them in libraries, should send at once for a copy of our
Catalogue, which will be mailed free to any address in the world.
MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers, 36i Broadway, New York City
Paint, enamel, Pinchin Johnson & Co 57,344
Paints and varnishes, certain, Chilton Paint
Paints, cold water, Columbia Refining Co. . . 57,341
Paints, varnishes, and enamels, oil, Muralo
Pajamas, J. L. Clark 57,292
Paper, commercial and record, F. A. Flinn 57,353
Paper, writing, Southworth Co 57,545, 57,570
Paper, writing and printing, George La Monte
Papers, transfer, Paas Dye Co 57,516
Paste in powder form, Clark Paper & Manu-
facturing Co 57,497
Photographic film, Eastman Kodak Co. ,
57,378, 57,445, 57,446 to 57,449, 57,499
57,500 to 57,502, 57,531 to 57,534
Piano players, Autotone Co • • 57,349
Piano players and combination pianos and pi-
ano players, Auto-Grand Piano Co 57,348
Piano players and perforated records therefor,
automatic, Simplex Piano Player Co. . . . 57,390
Piano players and player pianos, Horace
Waters & Co 57,392
Pianos, Horace Waters & Co 57,367
Pianos having playing attachments, Auto-
Grand Piano Co 57,362
Pills, pellets, or granules, R. V. Pierce. . . . 57,519
Plaster of paris, J. B. King & Co 57,535
Plaster, plaster of paris, calcined plaster,
and stucco, wall, Acme Cement Plaster
Plasters, porous, Allcock Manufacturing Co. 57,525
Plated flat ware for table use, including
knives, forks, and spoons, International
Silver Co 57,509, 57,5(50
Popcorn, sweetened or molasses, D. L. Clark
Powder, explosive, E. I. du Pont Co 57.395
Powder, explosive, Laflin & Rand Powder Co. 57,426
Powder, gun, E. I. du Pont Co 57,396, 57,419
Powder, including smokeless powder, ex-
plosive, E. I. du Pont Co 57,420
Powder, including smokeless powder, gun,
E. I. du Pont Co 57,418
Pumps and turbines, Vagn-och Maskin-Fab-
Pumps, steam, Union Steam Pump Co ... . 57,482
Punch, John E. Cassidy & Son 57,;"61
Radiators, R. S. Calef 57,441
Razors, Moshy & Rahaim 57,429
Razors, Wm. Elliot & Co 57,433, 57,490
Remedies for certain named diseases, Tilden
Remedies for the treatment of gouty dia-
thesis, cystitis, and pyelitis, Tilden Co. 57,548
Remedies for the treatment of stomach and
bowel troubles, Tilden Co 57,571
Remedies for uterine disorders, Schlotterbeck
& Foss Co 57,544
Remedies, throat and lung, D. Ransom, Son
and Co 57,529
Remedy for anemia, C. Manas y Britapaja
Vda de Reveron 57,564
Remedy for catarrh, R. V. Pierce 57,539
Remedy for certain named diseases, Janes
Medicine Co 57,510
Remedy for nasal, throat, and lung diseases,
T. N. Kenyon 57,512
Ribbons, Smith & Kaufmann 57,297,57,313
Rings, finger, Ostby and Barton Co 57,296
Roofing, sheet metal, Protected Metal Co.
Rope, cord, lines, and twine, American Manu-
facturing Co 57,434
Rubber goods, certain named, Goodyear Tire
and Rubber Co 57,590
Salmon, shrimp, lobsters, and clams, E. T.
Smith Co 57,587
Saws and saw blades, Hibbard, Spencer, Bart-
lett & Co 57,456
Seed, bird, Griggs, Cooper & Co 57,593
Shears and butchers' knives, sheep and gar-
den, Burgon & Ball 57,440,57,528
Shears, sickles, scythes, and knives, Burgon
& Ball 57,407
Shoes, leather, Upham Bros. Co 57,361
Shoes, leather, Smith-Briscoe Shoe Co 57,404
Shoes, leather, M. Marchand and Sons 57,465
November 24, 1906.
The razor tbaft will split a hairisthestropped
razor, for no razor, no matter what kind, can
hold a hair-splitting edge without being occa-
sionally stropped. The barber will tell you
that a good strop is as necessary as the razor
for a smooth, eaay shave. A Torrey Strop
will enable the most inexperienced to quickly
edge up a razor.
are made in all styles. Popular prices— 50c,
75c, $1.00, $1.50, $2.00 and $2.50. Sent postpaid
if your dealer cannot supply. Money refunded
or new Btrop if not satisfactory.
Torrey 's Oil-Edge Dressing will keep any
strop soft and pliable. Price 15c at dealers, or
mailed on receipt of price. Catalogue of
Torrey Strops, containing valuableinformation
for those who shave, sent free.
J. R. TORREY S CO., P.O. Box 34 .Worcester, Mass.
Personally Conducted — Ex-
clusively First-Class — to Cali-
fornia — January 10th, February
7th and March 2nd under the
auspices of the tourist depart-
ment, Chicago, Union Pacific
and North-Western Line;
Include all expenses
— hotels, railway fare, sleeping
car and dining car accommoda-
tions of the finest character,
and numerous side trips. So
arranged as to spend the dis-
agreeable portions of the win-
ter months in comfort and ease.
Write for itineraries and full
particulars to S. A. Hutchinson,
Manager, 212 Clark Street, Chi-
BABBITT METALS.— SIX IMPORTANT
formulas. Scientific American Supplement 1 l*i3*
Price 10 cents. For sale by Munu & Co. and all news-
dealers. Send for catalogue.
Are made by WHOLESALE GROCERY SALESMEN.
There is a constant demand for capable Salesmen. Houses
ask for our men. We teach you to be an EXPERT by mail.
Our system is simple, practical, thorough and authentic. Our
instructors are experienced wholesale grocery men. Write
to-day tor our FREE 1 ooklet giving full particulars. Address
The Wholesale Grocers' Institute, Kansas City, U. S. A,
Have you that clearness of mind so essential to suc-
cess in your undertakings 'f You can have, but not until
your physical system Is right. I want to tell every inter-
ested reader of Scientific American how he may at-
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most rational and logical method yet known— 1£AW
FOJD DIET— not a fad of " cranks,'' not a theory,
but an infallible method of proper eating. Send 111.00
for sack of my MASCER-ATED WHEAT (39 days
supply), and convincing letters, or merely write for
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BYKON TYLER, 334 Jjr e Bldg., Kansas City, Mo-
Carefully Developed Hay Be a Succe'ss !
Development of ideas, experiments, models. Spe-
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and Manufacturers. 115 Court Street, Hoboken, N. J.
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Anyone sending a sketch and description way
emickly ascertain our opinion free whether an
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tions strictly confidential. HANDBOOK on Patents
sent free. Oldest agency for securing patents.
Patents taken through Munn & Co. receive
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A handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest cir-
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year ; four months, $1. Sold by all newsdealers.
PHUNN & Co. 36,Broadway - New York
Branch Office. 635 F St. Washington. D. C.
Shoes, leather, Menzies Shoe Co 57,600
Silver plated hollow wart', International Sil-
ver Co 57,329
Soap, Lever Brothers Co 57,300,57,309
Soap, Pitts Sanitary Co 57,400, 57,401
Soap. Lever Brothers Co 57,530
Soap, harness, Duranoid Mfg. Co.......* 57,205
Soap, laundry anil powdered, C. W. Young
& Co ,. 57,309
Soaps, Lambert Pharmacal Co 57,503
Spectacles and eyeglass parts, C. A. Wilkin-
son & Co 57,488
Spirits, Woollier & Co 57,287
Steel, Walter Spencer & Co 57,391
Steel, Crucible Steel Company of America 57,517
Steel, Sanderson Brothers & Newbould . . . . 57,475
Steel, Walter Spencer & Co 57,480
Steel, Hobson, Houghton & Co '57,500
Steel, Seebohm & Dieckstahl 57,012
Steol and iron, Walter Spencer & Co 57,617
Steel, except sheet steel, unwrought and
partly wrought. Edgar Allen & Co.... 57,450
Steel, tool, S-lrtli-Sterlliif? Steel Co 57,410
Steel, tool, J. J. Saville & Co 57,459
Steel, unwrought and partly wrought, Edgar
Allen & Co 57,379,57.380,57,424
J Steel, unwrought and partly wrought, Jonas
& Colver 57,400, 57,401
Steel unwrought and partly wrought, \V. K.
& C. Peace 57,485
Steel, ' unwrought and partly wrought, and
wire made of steel, Marsh Brothers Co. 57,428
Stoves and burners, gas ranges, and ovens,
vapor, American Stove Co 57,435
Stoves, heaters, and lamps and burners there-
for, oil, Plume & Atwood Mfg. Co 57,540
Stoves, heaters, burners, • and blow lamps,
G. Barthel 57,438
Stoves, ranges, and furnaces, Pittsburgh
Hardware & Heme Supply Co 57,471
Stoves, vapor burners, and ovens, gasolene
or vapor, American Stove Co 57,400
Suspenders, C. A. Edgarton Manufacturing
Co 57,290, 57,291
Suspensory bandages, J. R. Somerville. . . . 57,478
Tablets, stomach, J. W. Stahlberg 57,540
Talking machines and parts thereof, Victor
Talking Machine Co 57,551
Talking machines and talking machine parts
and records, Universal Talking Machine
Manufacturing Co 57,550
Tape, dressmakers', Win. E. Wright & Sons
Tea, B. E. Enge 57,588
Tea, Geo. A. Young Co 57,580
1 Tea, Griggs, Cooper & Co 57,592
Tea, New York Coffee Co 57,001
Tea and coffee, C. P. Blanke Tea & Coffee
Co 57,580, 57,581
Tea and coffee, Mazawattee Tea Co 57,021
Textiles, certain named, F. W. Thompson 57,314
Thread, cotton, Clark Mile-End Spool Cotton
Thread, cotton, H. E. Locke 57,41:5
Tonic, laxative, J. Rosenberg 57,541
Tonic, malt, Pabst Brewing Co.,
57.333, 57,330, 57,343
Tools certain named cutting, Collins Co.... 57,408
Transom adjusters, New York Blind and
Transom Adjuster Co 57,407
Typewriter ribbons and carbon paper, Crown
Ribbon & Carbon Manufacturing Co.... 57,350
Valve grinding compounds. Auto Equipment
Washboards, American Washboard Co. 57, 430, 57,520
Washing and cleansing compounds, Trans-
Pacific Manufacturing Co 57,481
Washing compound, F. G. Bagley 57,437
Washing powder, Fairehild & Shelton Co. 57,311
Washing powder, N. K. Fairbank Co 57,430
Watches, W. C. Ball 57,492
Water, mineral, "Apenta" Reszveny-Tarsa-
sag . . . . 57,321 to 57,323, 57,340
Waters, ginger ale, and wild cherry phos-
■ phate, mineral, - Waukesha Arcadian Co. 57,339
Whisky, Sonn Bros. Co 57,202
Whisky, Standard Distilling Co 57,203, 57,204
Whisky, Tucker and McCormack 57,205
Whisky, J. Walsh & Co 57,200
Whisky, , Weiss Eichold Liquor Co 57,267
Whisky, White, Ilentz & Co 57,200
Whisky, William Werder & Son Co 57,270
Whisky, F. Wolfernmn 57,271,57,272
Whisky, Woollier & Co 57,273, 57,274
Whisky, Chas. A. Zahn Co 57.275
Whisky, M. H. Haussllng 57,277
Whisky, Hollenden Hotel Co 57,278
Whisky, Standard Distilling Co 57,279,57,280
Whisky, Oilman Einstein Co 57,281, 57,282
Whisky, J. Walsh & Co 57,283
Whisky, Weiss Eichold Liquor Co 57,284
Whisky, F. Wolfernmn 57,285,57,280
Whisky, S. Hirsch & Co 57,312
Whisky, M. J. Bligh 57,324
Whisky, Robinson & Parker 57,474
Whisky, Wheeling Liquor Co 57,487
Whisky, . Schmidt & Dechert 57,521
Whisky, H. Rosenheim & Son 07,. r p42
Whisky, Dreyfuss, Weil & Co B7.558
Whisky, Robinson & Parker 57,500
Whisky, J. Wagner & Sons 57,010
Whisky, Scotch, F. R. West's Nephews 57,208
Whisky, Scotch, J. Gillon & Co 57,270
Wine, I. Rosenzweig 57,337
Wire netting, fencing, cloth, and lathing,
New Jersey Wire Cloth Co 57,384
'Autocrat Whisky.," for whisky, Edwin
'Good Luck," for whisky, J. Grossman's Sons 13,193
'Green Mountain Chewing Gum," for chew-
ing gum, Green Mountain Gum Co. .... 13,197
'Honey Cream Tunica, " for honey-cream ex-
tracts and beverages, German-American
Honey i'hatnpa.mti' Co 13,195
'Honeymoon CbOCOmtea, " for confectionery,
KlTil L. Norton 13,196
'Logan's Cream Balm Hair Restorer," for a
hair restorer, Mary E. Logan 13,198
■Royal Buck," for gin, J. Grossman's Sons 13,194
■Techado Ruberoid," for a roofing, Standard
Paint Co. 13,199
'Abbott's Angostura Bitters," for bitters, C.
W. Abbott and Co 1,831
'Bear Brand (immos," for guanos, Tennessee
Chemical Co 1,S38
''Enlightening tile Clothing World," for cloth-
ing, Ed. V. Price & Co 1,835
'■Men and Boys Apparel," for mens and
boys' apparel, H.. C. Lytton 1 T S33
"Mon T s Apparel," for men's apparel, W. C.
"Ox Brand Guanos," for guanos, Tennessee
Chemical Co 1,839
'■Pearl of Memphis," for beer, Memphis Brew-
ing & Malting Co 1,832
"Suggestion Number Five," for woolens, Ed.
V. Price & C# 1,836
1 Tri-Plaid Back Bicycle Playing Cards," for
playing cards, United States Playing
Card Co 1,837
A printed copy nf the specification and drawing
of any patent in the foregoing list, or any patent
in print issued since 1863, will be furnished from
this office for 10 cents, provided the name and
number of the patent desired and the date bt*
given. Address Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, New
Canadian patents may now be obtained by the in-
ventors for any of the inventions named in the fore-
going list. For terms and further particulars
ftddress Munn & Co., 362 Broadway, New York.
A Thrilling Story of
American Business Life
Wriiien by Broughton 'Brandenburg, President
American Institute of Immigration. Don't fail to read
it. It tells how a fortune was madeand lost in tobacco
Speculations — how a sudden turn in the stock market,
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delicately reared family to the verge of want. It also
shows how a Prudential Life Insurance Policy for
$50,000 saved the situation. The author says of The
"It stood out like a chimney-tower above the black-
ened ruins of a mansion that had been swept by fire."
The popularity of the above article has been such
that The Prudential is issuing it in pamphlet form.
Write at once for a copy. It costs you nothing.
Prudential Life Insurance Policies are popular
because of their liberal provisions.
Insurance Company of America
JOWH-F- DRYDEN, Prest.
Dept 121 Home Office, NEWARK._N,iJt,
let us be rouit factor*
WRITE FOR ESTIMATE ON ANY AfeTICLE '
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writb for : free booklet ..
the close machine 4. stamping co.
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Our Filters Purify, Deodorize,
Decolorize. Booklet Free.
Buhring Water Purifying Co.
68 Murray St., New York
" K ^?. E " BALL
For thrust or weight or both*
No fitting, just push them on.
All sizes 1-4 In. Shaft and up.
10 cts. in Stamps for samples.
PRESSED STEEL MFG. CO., 545 The Bourse, Phila,, Pa.
Every owner of an Auto should insure his car against
loss or damage, whether in actual riding or in transit.
We fully insure you against such loss or damage, how-
ever sustained. Premiums low fullest reliability.
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CBCE ILLUSTRATED Q A A |#
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We will on request send to you oostpaid, this book, also our special
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tree. Write (twi»y — dun't miss this chance. J. Audrae »fc Sons
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Corliss Engines, Brewers
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MFG. CO.. 899 Clinton St., Milwaukee, Wis.
MfinFlQ * EXPERIMENTAL WORK.
ITIUUCLO Inventions developed. Special Machinery.
E. V. BAILLARD. 24 Frankfort Street. New York.
Fine Jobbing Work
PARKER, STEARNS & CO.. 228=229 South Street, New York
Model and lixueriinen ml Work. Yearsof ex-
perience. M. P. Schell, 1759 Union St., San Francisco
MfYnn -^ fCHICAGO MODEL WORKS
CSTJtai AM/r£> I867V&. 1VPITE POTSMAUKUE Or MODEL SUPPLIES
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BE A WATCHMAKER
Send for our free boot, How to he a Watchmaker. Stone ,
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Grand Junction, Col., Nov. 3d, 1906.
Sealed proposals will be received by the City Council
of the City of Grand Junction, Colorado, until eight
o'clock P. M. Saturday, November 28th, 1906, for furn-
ishing material and constructing the Kannah Creek
pipe line and distributing reservoirs.
The work will consist of a wooden stave pipe line
19.8 miles long, varying in size from 12 inches to 22
inches in diameter, with head works, settling tank,
regulating and relief valves, and re-inforced concrete
distributing reservoirs, having a capacity of five million
Bids will be received for both wire wound, and con-
tinuous wooden stave pipe, except for the twelve-inch
pipe which shall be wire wound.
Plans may be seen, and specifications obtained, at the
office of the City Clerk of Grand Junction, Colorado, or
at the offices of Willard Young and Frank C. Kelsey,
Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. A bond furn-
ished by a surety company will be required for twenty
percent, of the contract price. The time stated in the
proposal tor completing the work will be considered in
The right is reserved to reject any or all bids or to
award separate contract for the pipe line and for the
reservoirs. I. N. BUNTING, Mayor.
JOHN M. CONLEY, City Clerk.
\ T ^■wti'v* 4- "WTirr Circulars, books, newspa-
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DON'T BUY GASOLINE ENGINES
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a two-cylinder gasoline, kerosene or
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engine. Send fob Catalogue. THE TEMPLE PUMP CO., Mfrs., Meagher and 15th Sts.. Chicago. THIS IS OUR FUTY-TH1RD YEAR.
November 24, 1906.
Rubber Elevator &
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New Yort, S14 Liberty Street Chicago, 753 Monadnock Building
Stationaries, Portables, Hoisters, Pump-
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] witb Dynamos.
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CHARTER GAS ENGINE CO., Box 148, STERLING, ILL.
Ail varieties at lowest prices. Best llailroad
Track and Wagon or Stock Scales made.
Also 1000 useful articles, including safes.
Sewing Machines, Bicycles, Tools, etc. Save
Lists Free Chicago Scale Co.. Chicago, 111.
Roisters the Second, Minute,
Hour, Day of Week, Date
of Month, and Phases of
Moon. Changes Auto-
and set; jewelled pivot
boles ; expansion bal-
ance; accurate and relia-
ble; richly decorated dial
Price, $ 7-45
represented. Express Prepaid if
remittance comes with order.
wo or more, %*t each. References :
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Espies* Co. Fine Holiday Gift.
Dell hart Makers & Traders, Ltd., 150 Fifth Ave.", New York
Bausch & Lomb
The Reducing Glass gives a miniature image of any desired
relative size. It is a double concave lens, mounted in neat nick-
eled ring, with ebonite handle. The Reducing Glass gives you a
correct idea of the way photographs, drawings or actual objects
will look when reduced to smaller size for cuts, half tones, etc.;
also how objects or scenes will look when photographed.
2 inch lens, £1,20 Post Paid. Catalog on
3 inch lens, 2.2 5 Post Paid. request.
Bausch &. Lomb Opt. Co.. Rochester, N'. Y.
New York Boston Washington
Chicago San Francisco
[LEARN TO BE
Bradley Polytechnic Institute
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Largest and Itest Watch School
We teach Watch Work, Jewelry,
Engraving, Clock Work, Optics.
Tuition reasonable. Board and
rooms near school at moderate rates.
Send for Catalog: of Information.
OPEN A GARAGE
There Is Big Money In It
With the increasing number of
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demand for storage, care, and repair
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To be successful in this business you must
KNOW ALL ABOUT AUTOMOBILES
their construction and mechanism; their care and repair.
Through our practical series of text books and expert
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We have a special course of instruction for Garage Man-
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The Correspondence School of Automobile Engineering,
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®(y>^ A® V Ed V IPY ©klg foMJk v Tfl
The Qualities Peculiarly Neces-
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Yachts, Steamships, Traction
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Its colors are rich and permanent, and it is adaptable to designs of
far greater beauty and variety than any other Flooring Material.
OUR BOOK-OF-DESIGNS-IN-COLOR, WITH DETAILED INFORMATION REGARD-
ING PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER TILING, SENT FREE ON REQUEST
Pennsylvania Rubber Company
©■m v Tif
to the ideal cOmliSnnliAli nt tlie Oriental
/ Narciiih *v!thntit ita c] uxii&iTmra, and the
OccfSvBfel pipe without its Injurious
efiecta mi ;r>: faualLh. of the fctnoker,
Tlia Turkish Water Pipe afiurrJH
th« beallbieal fim^he M pmvfed
hy tbo proverbial loupe vily at
the Turks. Tbt fwtitrua Ttorcif
American GfataHve is 9 ptrf-
tQ&tpip* with ail the health
very wreath of
smoke, in itself
the greatest delight
the fastidious pipe
is segregated absolutely
in the bottom of the bowl.
Thus the Turco-Amcrican
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every bit of tobacco in the pipe
is consumed to a clear white ash.
Smoke it a week, and you will be so
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with it for many times the amount of its cost. But if not entirely
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money. Straight or drop stems. Price $1. 50, postpaid in United
States and Canada. Foreign countries add postage. Reference :
National Bank of Commerce. Booklet for the asking.
TheTurco-AmericanPipeCo,, 215 South Ave, Rochester, N.Y.
Tools! Tools! Tools!
and all you want to know about
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22 is a cloth-bound book of 950
pages. If you want to " know
it all " about Tools you should
send for this book at once
Sent post-paid on receipt of
$1.00 which will be refunded
from your first purchase from
us of $10.00 or over.
nONTGOMERY & CO.
105 Fulton Street, N. Y. City
Olds Gas Engines and Pintsch
Suction Qas Producers are built in
the same plant— engines 2 to 1,600 h. p.
— producers 4 to 2,000 h. p.
We know each complete plant (pro-
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costs are 1-3 to 1-5 -of steam, 1-2 of
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Send for detailed information applied
to your requirements.
OLDS OAS POWER CO.
947 Chestnut St., Lansing, Mich.
Formerly Olds Gasoline Engine Works
Suction Gas Producer
WM. H. BRISTOL
Portable and Switchboard Forms.
All ranges to 2900° F. Practical, Ac-
curate. Inexpensive. Guaranteed to
give, satisfaction, . Send for circulars.
Wm. H. Bristol, 45 Vesey St., New York
Makes Everything In
Art Architectural Sheet Metal Work
Statuary — Ornamental Sheet Metal Work — Skylights — Fireproof
Windows — Art Metal Tile Roofing — Steel Ceilings — Finials —
Wrought Iron Grilles — Cornices, etc., etc. Estimates, models and
designs submitted for architects, builders and contractors.
Our 120-Page Catalogue of stock designs will be sent on request.
The W. fi. Mullins Co. ,203 Franklin Street, Salem, Ohio.
The original and only genuine
red sheet packing.
The only effective and most
economical flange packing in ex-
Can't blow Rainbow out.
For steam, air, hot or cold
water, acid and ammonia joints.
Beware of imitations.
Look for the trade mark — the
word Rainbow in a diamond in
black, three rows of which extend
the full length of each roll.
Manufactured exclusively by
PEERLESS RUBBER riFG. CO.
16 Warren St., New York
AMERICAN PROCESS. NO ROYALTIES.
SAMPLESanoINFORMATIONon application. ■
Apparatus ana Material
Hanson & Van Winkle
Newark. S. J .
28 & SOS. Canal Si.
W£ SAVE YOU 35# TO 602
All Standard Makes
Guaranteed equal to new in appearance
andquality of work. Thoroii(*hk vbtiilt.
Why pay $100 for a TYPEWRITER we
sell tor $40 to $fi5? Discounts .iiuniers
five or more.
Second-hand typewriters $15 to
Agents wanted. Seud f»r partic
Adds Double Heating |
toany stove, and fits any pipe..
If you would save one-half your
fuel bills, the
will do it, because its simple and
scientific construction of drums and
flues are compactly arranged to take
the place of a stove pipe length;
thoroughly radiating all the heat
which usually goes up the chimney.
We also make NEW ERAS for the
furnace, and you should ask your
dealer or write for full particulars to
WILMOT CASTLE CO.
17 A Elm St., Rochester, H. Y. §
liver's Band Saws
20-in Foot or Belt Power
20-in. Belt Power
32-in. Belt Power
36=ln. Belt Power
Hub Boxing and Spoke Tenon
Machines, Forges, Drills and
"Ohio" Feed and En-
THE SILVER MFG.
Stationary 1 % to 80 H. P,
Marine Z% to 100 H. P.
Use KEROSENE and FUEL
OILS. Direct connected Gen-
erators, Pumps, Air Compressors.
Hoists, etc. Thousands in use in
all parts of the world.
128-138 Mott St., NewYork, U.S.A.
liH.P. Gasolene Auto-Marine Engine
Built like a watch. PeantifuJly Finished. Accu-
rately Constructed. Light, Slri/iiy. Reliable, and
Noiseless in operation. Suitable for launches
from 15 to In feet in length. Price complete,
$75 net, no discount. Thoroughly guaranteed.
Perfect Speed Cm trol. Complete descriptive Cata-
log upon application. Manufactured by.
292 S. Front St., Grand Rapids. Mich.
15 to 31 South Clinton Street.